History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network

Cable Timeline: 1951-2000
by Bill Glover

Click on the Route links to see cable samples, the Company or Operator links for full descriptions, the ship name links to see descriptions or images.
Atlantic cables and their connecting systems are highlighted in green.
Please note that Timeline entries within each year are not necessarily chronological, as the exact date of laying is generally not known.
WFS = Withdrawn From Service
Year Route Manufacturer Owner or Operator Cable Ships Notes Bandwidth
1951 Dover - Audresselles Câbles de Lyon GPO ? System 23 nm.  
1951 Tradomari Niigata - Maura Sado, Japan ? Japanese Government ? System 48.7 km. 2 pair, telephone cable insulated with parragutta. Cable laid across Toyogo Straits in 1943 recovered and used for this cable  
1951 Mori - Muroran, Japan ? Japanese Government ? 8 pair, polyethylene insulated telephone cable. First use of such material in Japan  
1952 Seaford - Veules les Roses ? GPO ? 2 cables laid.  
1952 USA - Bahamas - Grand Turk - Dominican Republic - Puerto Rico Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Monarch (4) All repeaters were based on land. Pan American Airways maintained the system.  
1953 Recife - St Vincent, Cape Verde Islands ? Italcable Monarch (4)    
1954 Sicily - Malta Submarine Cables Ltd C&W on behalf of NATO Ariel System 61 nm. Taken over by the Italian PTT and named MED 1  
1954 Aberdeen, Scotland - Bergen, Norway Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Monarch (4) System 307 nm. New type of repeater suitable for deeper water was used for the first time.  
1954 Lowestoft - Scheveningen Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Ariel - Iris (2) - Poolster Two cables laid each with 4 repeaters  
1954 Manicouagan - Petit Métis (Across the St Lawrence River) Telcon British Columbia Electric Company Monarch (4) Four power cables were laid.  
1955 MED 1: Italy - Malta Submarine Cables Ltd Italian PTT ? System 54 nm.  
1955 TAT 1: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Oban, Scotland Submarine Cables Ltd 3534 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 350 nm of shore ends - Southern United Telephone Co 80 nm landline. Western Electric supplied the repeaters. Includes entry below AT&T owned 50%; GPO 41% and COTC 9%

Monarch (4)

Clyde puffer Glenaray laid Oban shore ends.

System 1942 nm with 51 one way repeaters. 48 telephone circuits
1956 TAT 1: Oban, Scotland - Clarenville, Newfoundland See above GPO - AT&T - COTC Monarch (4) System 1945 nm with 51 one way repeaters.  
1956 TAT 1: Terrenceville, Newfoundland - Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia Submarine Cables Ltd., 271 nm and 16 repeater housings. Standard Telephones & Cables 16 internal repeater units GPO - AT&T - COTC Monarch (4)

System 328 nm with 16 two way shallow water repeaters (GPO design). Overland line between Clarenville and Terrenceville

Video file from the CBC Digital Archives of a January 1957 interview with Douglas Bowie of the COTC

80 telephone circuits
1956 Den Helder, Holland - Esbjerg, Denmark Câbles de Lyon, Cable: - La Compagnie Industrielle Des Telephones, Repeaters French PTT Ampere (3) System 210 nm.  
1956 Thisted, Denmark - Kristiansand, Norway Submarine Cables Ltd Norwegian PTT Ocean Layer System 81 nm.  
1956 Cape Canaveral - Puerto Rico Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Monarch (4) Same system as TAT 1  
1956 Port Angeles, Washington State - Ketchikan - Skagway, Alaska Simplex Wire & Cable Co. cable - Western Electric, repeaters AT&T: Port Angeles - Ketchikan cable. Alaskan Communication System: Ketchikan - Skagway cable Albert J. Myer - Basil O. Lenoir System, Port Angeles - Ketchikan 761 nm with 20 repeaters. Ketchikan - Port Angeles 740 nm with 19 repeaters + 346 nm. Same system as TAT 1 Port Angeles - Ketchikan. Single cable Ketchikan - Skagway, repeaters for this cable were land based. WFS 1977 144 + 144 kHz. 48 telephone circuits
1956 Sicily - Pantellaria - Tunisia Submarine Cables Ltd C&W on behalf of NATO Iris (2) System 64 + 23 nm. Taken over by the Italian PTT and named MED 2  
1956 Qelibia - Bou Ficha (Tunisian coastal cable) Câbles de Lyon French PTT Ampere (3) System 59 nm.  
1956 Qelibia - Pantellaria (Tunisian coastal cable) Câbles de Lyon French PTT Ampere (3) System 23 nm.  
1956 Vancouver Island - Mainland Canada W.T. Glover & Co Ltd British Columbia Electric Company Ocean Layer Five power cables were laid  
1957 France - Algeria Câbles de Lyon French Telecom - PTT Algeria Ampere (3) - Alsace - Emile Baudot System 478 nm. WFS 1994  
1957 Thule, Greenland - Cape Dyer, Baffin Island Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Albert J. Myer System 720, 720 nm. Same as TAT 1. Considerable problems were caused at Cape Dyer by grounding icebergs. The landing was bypassed in 1964 by Albert J. Myer.  
1957 HAW 1: Point Arena, California - Hanauma Bay, Oahu, Hawaii Submarine Cables Ltd 2030 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co - 2380 nm., and repeater housings. Western Electric supplied the internal repeater units AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer System: Point Arena, California - Hanauma Bay, Hawaii 2197 nm with 57 repeaters. Hanauma Bay - Punta Arena 2210 nm., with 57 repeaters. Same as TAT 1. WFS 1989. Now used for scientific research. 48 telephone circuits
1958 Civitecchia, Italy - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia Pirelli Italian PTT Salernum System 130 nm. WFS 1993  
1958 CI 3: Tuckton Bridge, Bournemouth, England - Greve D'Azette, Jersey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO Alert (4) System 134 nm. Coaxial cable with 10 repeaters spaced at 13.4 nm intervals. Laying at Jersey completed 3 June and at Bournemouth one week later 120 x 4 kHz channels. (2 Supergroups)
1958 Dumpton Gap, England - Middlekerke, Belgium Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Belgian PTT Iris (2) System 76 nm  
1958 Marseille, France - Bizerta, Tunisia ? French PTT   System 1000 nm. WFS 1993  
1958 Vancouver Island - Mainland Canada W.T. Glover & Co Ltd British Columbia Electric Company Monarch (4) Two power cables were laid  
1959 TAT 2: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Penmarc'h, France Submarine Cables Ltd 1900 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 600 nm - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke 1000 nm - Cables de Lyon 1000 nm. AT&T - French PTT - German PTT

Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer - John W. Mackay - Ampere (3)

Ocean Layer caught fire while laying its section of the cable and became a total loss.

System 2250, 2250 nm. As TAT 1 two cables were laid. WFS 1982 48 telephone circuits
1959 TAT 2: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia No. 2 Submarine Cables Ltd., cable and repeater housings. Repeater electronics by STC AT&T - French PTT - German PTT Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer - John W. Mackay - Ampere (3) System 338 nm with 16 GPO shallow water repeaters. WFS 1982 80 telephone circuits
1959 Strait of Georgia - Galiano Island - Trincomali Strait, Canada W.T. Glover & Co Ltd British Columbia Electric Company Ocean Layer The Galiano Island section was an overhead line. British Insulated Callenders (Submarine) Cables Ltd were reponsible for the laying and installation of the cables  
1959 PR 1: West Palm Beach, Florida - San Juan, Puerto Rico Simplex Wire & Cable Co 1200 nm. - Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 715 nm - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke. Western Electric supplied the repeaters. Includes entry below AT&T - Radio Corporation of Puerto Rica Monarch (4) System 1136 nm with 30 repeaters. Twin cable system as TAT 1. WFS 1984 48 telephone circuits
1960 PR 1: San Juan, Puerto Rico - West Palm Beach, Florida   AT&T - Radio Corporation of Puerto Rica Monarch (4) System 1117 nm with 29 repeaters. Twin cable system as TAT 1. WFS 1984  
1960 Marske by the Sea, England - Gothenburg, Sweden Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 538 nm GPO - Swedish PTT Monarch (4) - Ariel laid shore ends System 509 nm.  
1960 Mielno, Poland - Bornholm - Avedöre, Denmark Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Great Northern Telegraph Co Nordenham - C.E. Krarup (2) - Edouard Suenson    
1960 Baffin Island - White Bay, Newfoundland Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Monarch (4) System 1020, 1020 nm. Same as TAT 1.  
1960 Frederiksdal - Prinz Christian Sund (Greenland) Câbles de Lyon ? Edouard Suenson System 60 nm.  
1961

CANTAT A: Oban, Scotland - Hampden, Newfoundland

The complete system, comprising CANTAT A and B, is referred to as CANTAT 1 on other site pages

Submarine Cables Ltd all cable plus 90 repeater housings. Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 65 nm of cable laid overland, and 90 repeater internal units C&W - COTC Monarch (4) System 2072 nm. Ariel laid UK shore ends. Albert J. Myer Hampden shore ends. WFS 1986 240 + 240 kHz. 60 telephone circuits. The overland section had 120 circuits.
1961 CANTAT B: Corner Brook, Newfoundland - Grosses Roches, Quebec Submarine Cables Ltd 400 nm and 20 repeaters COTC Alert (4)

System 400 nm. Hadsund laid shore ends. WFS 1986

Audio file of the inaugural telephone call from the CBC Digital Archives

240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits
1961 SCOTICE: Gairloch, Scotland - Torshavn, Faroe Islands - Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd. GPO - Great Northern Telegraph Co - Danish PTT Alert (4) - John W. Mackay System 284 + 401 nm.  
1961 ICECAN: Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - Frederiksdal, Greenland - Hampden, Newfoundland Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Great Northern Telegraph Co - COTC Neptun (3) - Edouard Suenson System 829 + 887 nm  
1961 Manahawkin, NJ, USA - Devonshire Bay, Bermuda Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W - AT&T Alert (4) - Retriever (5) System 750 nm with 30 repeaters. Retriever (5) laid the USA and Bermuda shore ends. WFS 1990 240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits
1961 USA - US Virgin Islands ? AT&T - ITT ?    
1961 Holland - Denmark ? ? ?    
1961 Lydd, England - Bolougne, France British cable: - W.T. Glover & Co. Ltd - AEI. French cable: - Câbles de Lyon - Jeumont Forges et Ateliers de Constructions Electrique de Jeumont - Ste Alsaienne de Constructions Mecaniques & Trefilieries et Laminoirs du Havre. CEGB - France Dame Caroline Haslett - Ampere (3) - d'Arsonval Two power cables each 38 statute miles long, laid in parallel.  
1962 Wales - Isle of Man Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Ariel System 61 nm.  
1962 England - Wales Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Alert (4) System 65 nm  
1962 France - Algeria II Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 540 nm.  
1962 MED 2: Sicily - Canea, Crete Câbles de Lyon 276 nm. - Pirelli 190 nm. C&W on behalf of NATO ? System 466 nm. Taken over by the Italian PTT  
1962 Sicily - Sardinia Pirelli Italian PTT Salernum System 218 nm  
1963 COMPAC: Auckland, New Zealand - Sydney, Australia: Auckland - Suva, Fiji - Keawaula, Oahu - Port Alberni, Canada Submarine Cables Ltd 5860 nm., 93 complete repeaters and 231 repeater housings - Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2800 nm., plus 231 internal repeater units GPO - AOTC - COTC - NZ PO Monarch (4) - Mercury System 8234 nm with 318 repeaters. WFS 1984 240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits
1963 COMPAC: Auckland, New Zealand - Sydney, Australia: Auckland - Suva, Fiji - Keawaula, Oahu - Port Alberni, Canada Submarine Cables Ltd 5860 nm., 93 complete repeaters and 231 repeater housings - Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2800 nm., plus 231 internal repeater units GPO - AOTC - COTC - NZ PO Monarch (4) - Mercury System 8234 nm with 324 repeaters. WFS 1984 240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits
1963 TAT 3: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Widemouth Bay, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable. Western Electric repeaters AT&T - GPO Alert (4) - Long Lines System 3518 nm with 182 rigid two way repeaters. WFS 1986 414 + 414 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1963 Eastern Test Range 1 Grand Turk - Ramsey Air Force Base, Puerto Rico - Coolidge Air Force Facility, Antigua Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke USAF Neptun (3) - Omega System 336 + 377 nm. Omega laid all shore ends.  
1963 Florida, USA - Kingston, Jamaica Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 553 nm. - Western Electric 322 nm and repeaters. JITL - AT&T Alert (4) System 875 nm with 43 repeaters. WFS 1992 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1963 Kingston, Jamaica - Fort Sherman, Panama Canal Zone Western Electric AT&T - ITT - Central America Cables & Radio Inc. Alert (4) System 631 nm with 32 repeaters. WFS 1998 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1963 Winterton, England - Esbjerg, Denmark Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Danish PTT Monarch (4) - Peter Faber (2) System 291 nm. This cable and the two German cables below were laid at the same time. 120 x 4 kHz channels
1963 Winterton, England - Borkum - Leer, Germany No 1 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - German PTT Monarch (4) - Peter Faber (2) System 251 nm 120 x 4 kHz channels
1963 Winterton, England - Borkum - Leer, Germany No 2 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - German PTT Monarch (4) - Poolster (2) System 251 nm 120 x 4 kHz channels
1964 England - Holland 1 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO Dutch - PTT Alert (4) - Poolster (2) System 103 nm. 120 x 4 kHz channels
1964 Philippines - Vietnam Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 696 nm. Known as "Wet Wash A"  
1964 TPC 1: Makaha, Oahu - Midway Island - Wake Island - Tanguisson Point, Guam - Ninomiya, Japan Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2047 nm - Ocean Cable Co - Western Electric, cable and repeaters AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co - KDD Long Lines System 5282 nm., with 274 repeaters WFS 1990. Used for scientific research. 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1964 TPC 1: Tanguisson Point, Guam - Baler, Luzon, Philippines Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1495 nm. Western Electric repeaters AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co - KDD Long Lines System 1489 nm., with 77 repeaters. WFS 1990. Used for scientific research. 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1964 HAW 2: San Luis Obispo, California - Makaha, Hawaii Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd - Ocean Cable Co - Western Electric cable and repeaters AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Long Lines System 2383 nm., with 123 repeaters. WFS February 1992. Used for scientific research. 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1964 HAW 2: Hanauma Bay - Makaha, Hawaii ? AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Long Lines System 49 nm with 2 repeaters. Provided a link between HAW 1 and 2. WFS April 1987. 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1964 Vero Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands Western Electric cable and repeaters AT&T Long Lines System 1179 nm., with 61 repeaters. WFS 1989 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1964-7 SEACOM 1
See entries below for detais
Submarine Cables Ltd., 1300 nm plus 22 repeaters and 67 repeater housings. Standard Telephone & Cables Ltd., 710 nm plus 67 internal repeater units     The whole system was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 30 March 1967  
1964-7

SEACOM 2
See entries below for detais

Submarine Cables Ltd., 3400 nm plus 66 repeaters and 197 repeater housings. Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., 1700 nm plus 197 internal repeater units        
1964 SEACOM 1: Kota Kinabalu, Sabah - Singapore     Monarch (4) - Mercury - Recorder (3) (laid shore ends at Sabah) - Cable Enterprise (2) laid the Singapore shore ends Mercury commenced laying from Sabah on 2 July 1964, laying 622 nm and 29 repeaters. Monarch (4) took over laying a further 243 nm and 14 repeaters reaching Singapore on 21 July 1964 80 channels
1965 SEACOM 1: Kota Kinabalu, Sabah - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong See 1964-7 entries   Monarch (4) - Mercury Monarch laid 400 nm and 18 repeaters from Sabah, commencing 2 July 1964. Mercury laid 700 nm and 28 repeaters arriving in Hong Kong on 7 November 1964. This cable opened for service on 31 March 1965 80 channels
1965 TAT 4: Tuckerton, New Jersey - St Hilaire de Riez, France Western Electric 1375 nm.and repeaters - Cables de Lyon 1125 nm. - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke 1200 nm. AT&T - French PTT Long Lines - Marcel Bayard System 3600 nm., with 186 repeaters. Marcel Bayard laid the French shore ends. WFS 1987 384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits
1965 PENCAN 1: Spain - Canaries Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., cable and repeaters CTNE John W. Mackay System 754 nm., with 45 repeaters. Cable Restorer surveyed the route. 160 3kHz channels
1965 Trinidad - Tobago W.T. Glover & Co. Ltd ? Photinia Power cable. British Insulated Callenders (Submarine) Cables Ltd were reponsible for the laying and installation of the cables  
1966 Hawaii - Johnston Island Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 769 nm. Known as "Wet Wash C" 240 + 240 kHz
1966 Cannes, France - Ile Rousse, Corsica Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 109 nm. WFS 1993  
1966 Gulf of Mexico Simplex Wire & Cable Co Gulf Coast Telephone Co   System 150 nm. Network now involves 500 nm of cable.  
1966 St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Maiquetia, Venezuela          
1966 Tortola, British Virgin Islands - Bermuda Submarine Cables Ltd., cable and repeater housings. Repeater electronics by STC C&W (West Indies) Ltd Mercury System 894 nm. with 35 repeaters 240 + 240 kHz., 80 telephone circuits
1966 St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Maiquetia, Venezuela Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable and repeaters AT&T Alert (4) System 545 nm with 22 repeaters. WFS 1987 240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits
1966 Eastern Test Range No 2 Grand Turk Island - San Salvador - Grand Bahama - Cape Kennedy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable and repeaters USAF John W. Mackay System 285 + 275 + 203 nm., with 39 repeaters  
1966 SEACOM 2: Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Tumon Bay, Guam See 1964-7 entries   Monarch (4) - Mercury Monarch laid the first section of 800 nm and 33 repeaters, commencing at Hong Kong. Mercury followed with 1260 nm and 50 repeaters, arriving at Guam on 21 October 1965. This section opened for service on 14 June 1966 160 x 3kHz channels
1967 SEACOM 2: Madang, Papua New Guinea - Cairns, Australia See 1964-7 entries   Monarch (4) - Mercury Monarch left Madang on 6 June 1966 laying 776 nm and 48 repeaters. Mercury then laid 840 nm and 49 repeaters arriving at Cairns on 3 October 1966. 160 x 3kHz channels
1967 SEACOM 2: Madang - Guam See 1964-7 entries   Monarch (4) - Mercury Mercury laid the first section with Monarch completing the task in January 1967. The two ships laid 1391 nm of cable and 83 repeaters. 160 x 3kHz channels
1967 Vietnam Coastal Cables Da Nang - Qui Nhon: Qui Nhon - Nha Trang: Qui Nhon - Cam Rahn Bay: Nha Trang - Vung Tau: Cam Rahn Bay - Vung Tau Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 202 + 122 + 144 + 290 + 206 nm. Omega laid all shore ends.  
1967 Vung Tau, Vietnam - Ban Sattahip, Thailand Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 607 nm. Omega laid all shore ends.  
1967 Kristiansand, Norway - Thisted, Denmark Submarine Cables Ltd Norwegian PTT Monarch (4) System 79 nm.  
1967 Nykobling, Denmark - Ronne, Bornholm Submarine Cables Ltd Danish PTT Alert (4) - Peter Faber (2) System 104 nm.  
1967 Canet, France - Tetouan, Morocco Câbles de Lyon French PTT - Martelca Marcel Bayard System 759 nm. WFS 1993  
1968 Jacksonville Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T Long Lines System 1302 nm., with 139 repeaters. WFS 1993 2160 + 2160 kHz. 845 channels
1968 Magens Bay, US Virgin Is - Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Western Electric AT&T Long Lines System 386 nm. WFS 1993 384 + 384 kHz
1968 Covehithe, England - Katwijk, Holland 2 Submarine Cables Ltd GPO - Dutch PTT Alert (4) System 110 nm. 480 x 4 kHz channels
1968 Tuckton Bridge, England - Greve D'Azette, Jersey Submarine Cables Ltd GPO Monarch (4) System 137 nm 480 x 4 kHz channels. (8 Supergroups)
1968 Scarborough, England - Kristiansand, Norway Submarine Cables Ltd GPO - Norwegian PTT Monarch (4) System 385 nm. 480 x 4 kHz channels
1968 MARTEL: Marseille, France - Tel Aviv, Israel Cbles de Lyon ITC Marcel Bayard System 1833 nm., with 96 repeaters. WFS 1993 120 channels
1968 Denmark - Bornholm Submarine Cables Ltd Danish PTT ? System 105 nm.  
1968 Inverary - Loch Gair, Scotland ? GPO Alert (4)    
1969 JASC: Japan - Siberia Ocean Cable Co.
(US Underseas Cable Corporation supplied transistorised repeaters)
Great Northern Telegraph Co - KDD KDD Maru System 477 nm. WFS June 1996. Used for earthquake research.  
1969 Uchiura Bay Ocean Cable Co NTT Tsugaru Maru System 19 nm. Amakusa Maru buried the cable  
1969 SAT 1: Melkbosstrand, Cape Town - Ascension - Sal, Cape Verde Islands - Santa Cruz, Tenerife - Sesimbra, Portugal Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable and repeaters South Atlantic Cable Corp - CPRM Mercury - John W. Mackay System 2594 + 1698 + 861 + 739 nm.
WFS 1993. Recovery of this cable has begun, the first 800 km being landed in Cape Town in May 2010 by the MV Lida belonging to WIND BV.
360 x 4 kHz channels
1969 Sesimbra, Portugal - Goonhilly, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable and repeaters GPO - CPRM Monarch (4) - Alert (4) System 951 nm with 128 repeaters. Alert laid the shore ends. WFS 1992 480 x 4 kHz channels
1969 Civitavecchia, Italy - Golfo di Aranci, Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable and repeaters Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 135 nm., with 20 repeaters  
1969 Sicily - Libya Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable and repeaters Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 306 nm., with 24 repeaters  
1969 Civitavecchia, Italy - Golfo d’Aranci, Sicily Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay    
1969 MED 3 Italy - Greece Submarine Cables Ltd OTE Alert (4) System 285 nm.  
1969 Barcelona, Spain - Pisa, Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T John W. Mackay System 450 nm., with 59 repeaters. WFS 1995  
1969 France - Tunisia Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 466 nm.  
1969 Germany - Sweden Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd German PTT John W. Mackay System 121 nm., with 15 repeaters  
1970 TAT 5: Green Hill, Rhode Island - Conil, Spain Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1220 nm. - Cables de Lyon 630 nm. - Western Electric 1620 nm., and repeaters AT&T - CTNE - CPRM - Italcable Long Lines System 3461 nm., with 361 repeaters. WFS 1993 720 x 3kHz channels
1970 MAT 1 Spain - Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd AT&T - CTNE - CPRM - Italcable John W. Mackay System 990 nm., with 93 repeaters. Extension to TAT 5 640 x 3 kHz channels
1970 Goonhilly, England - Algorta, Spain Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Spanish PTT Alert (4) System 477 nm., with 52 repeaters. 480 x 4 kHz channels
1970 St Raphael - St Tropez Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 15 nm.  
1970 France - Lebanon Câbles de Lyon French PTT - Lebanon PTT Marcel Bayard System 1844 nm.  
1970 Kirkwall, Scotland - Lerwick, Shetlands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO Alert (4) System 108 nm. 480 x 4 kHz channels
1971 Italy - Egypt Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 908 nm., with 85 repeaters  
1971 Italy - Albania Telettra Italian PTT - Telettra ? System 159 km.  
1971 Lerwick, Shetland Islands - Thorshavn, Faroe Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Danish PTT John W. Mackay System 235 nm with 27 repeaters 480 x 4 kHz channels
1971 Orkney - Shetland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO ? System 109 nm and 14 repeaters  
1971 CANBER: Canada - Bermuda Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W - COTC Mercury System 825 nm with 81 repeaters 640 channels
1971 Jamaica - Cayman Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies) Ltd Mercury System 350 nm with 24 repeaters  
1971 TRANSCAN 1: Gran Canaria - Fuerteventura - Lanzarote Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 217 nm., with 25 repeaters  
1971 Winterton, England - Fedderwarden, Germany Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - German PTT Alert (4) System 285 nm. 1260 x 4 kHz channels
1971 Taiwan - Okinawa Simplex Wire & Cable Co USAF Neptun (3) System 363 nm.  
1971 PENCAN 2: Spain - Gran Canaria Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 760 nm., with 116 repeaters  
1972 Aldeburgh, England - Domburg, Holland No 7 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Dutch PTT Alert (4) System 83 nm.  
1972 Broadstairs, England - Ostende, Belgium Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - Belgian PTT Alert (4) System 64 nm. 1260 x 4 kHz channels
1972 CI 5:Tuckton Bridge, England - L'Ancresse Bay, Guernsey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd, Southampton GPO Alert (4) System 89 nm with 14 repeaters. Loading from 11-17 March 1972 1380 x 4 kHz channels. ( 23 Supergroups)
1972 Italy - Algeria Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT Mercury System 598 nm., with 54 repeaters  
1972 France - Morocco 2 Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 1035 nm.  
1972 France - Algeria 2 Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard System 441 nm.  
1972 Egypt - Lebanon Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 375 nm.  
1972 CAM 1: Sesimbra, Portugal - Porto Novo, Madeira Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton CPRM John W. Mackay System 616 nm., with 34 repeaters. Loading from 10-26 April 1972. Laying including sailing from and to port from 8-24 May 1972. WFS 1993 and now used for scientific research 120 x 4 kHz channels
1972 PENBAL 1: Barcelona, Spain - Palma, Majorca Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE Mercury System 183 nm., with 28 repeaters. WFS 1994  
1972 PENCAN 2 Extension: Santa Cruz de Tenerife - Las Palmas Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE John W. Mackay System 60 nm., with 9 repeaters WFS 1996  
1972 West Palm Beach, Florida, - Brandie Point, Bahamas - Goodman Bay, New Providence, Bahamas Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton AT&T Alert (4) System 73 + 149 nm., with 34 repeaters. Loading took 5 days from 14-19 August 1972. Laying land based section from 25 August - 13 September 1972. Laying submarine cable from 13-25 September 1972. WFS 1999 5704 + 5704 kHz. 1380 x 4 kHz channels
1972 Miura - Ninomiya, Japan ? ? KDD Maru Experimental system  
1972 Kume Jima - Okinawa Ocean Cable Co NTT ? System 62 nm.  
1972-3 AFAR system: Azores Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd US Military ? AFAR - American Forces Acoustic Range  
1973 Aomori - Hakodate Ocean Cable Co NTT ? System 30 nm.  
1973 Miura - Iboraki Ocean Cable Co NTT ? System 249 nm.  
1973 Scarborough, England - Thisted, Denmark Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - Danish PTT Alert (4) System 381 nm. LAY 1, 12 - 18 March: LAY 2, 26 March - 13 April; LAY 3, 22 April - 4 May 1973 1260 x 4 kHz channels
1973 BRACAN 1:Brazil - Gran Canaria Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE - Empresa Brasileira de Telecommunicacoes Mercury. Retriever (5) and Recorder (3) carried out route surveys System 2634 nm., with 138 repeaters. WFS 1996.  
1973 St Maarten - St Thomas - Curacao Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton All America Cables & Radio - ITT Communications Inc. Virgin Islands -Antelcom John W. Mackay System 697 nm., with 34 repeaters. Loading from 5-18 February 1973  
1973 France - Morocco 2 Câbles de Lyon French PTT Marcel Bayard    
1974 CANTAT 2: Beaver Harbour, Canada - Widemouth Bay, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - COTC Mercury - Alert (4) Ariel - John Cabot System 2840 nm with 489 repeaters. Ariel laid UK shore ends John Cabot laid Canadian shore ends. Whilst burying the cable to the SW of Ireland the manned submersible Pisces III became stranded on the sea bed for several days. The crew were recovered safely. LOADING CABLE All dates 1973 LOAD 8, Shore end John Cabot 15-19 May; LOAD 2, Main lay Mercury 11-23 June; LOAD 7, Shore end John Cabot 25 June - 1 July; LOAD 3, Main lay Mercury 4-17 July; LOAD 4, Main lay Mercury 20 August - 1 September; LOAD 5, Main lay aboard Mercury 1-5 October; LOAD 6, Main lay Mercury 9-21 November. LAYING CABLE All dates 1973 LAY 3, Mercury 18 July - 1 August; LAY 5, Mercury 10 October - 7 November; LAY 6, Mercury 21 November - 12 December. Laying times include sailing to and from port. WFS 1992.
Canadian end was diverted to Sable Island and the cable was recommissioned as SITIFOG 2000. Abandoned after developing a fault.
1840 x 3kHz channels
1974 ARIANE: Marseille, France - Heraklion, Greece Câbles de Lyon Helltelca Marcel Bayard System 1343 nm. WFS 1997  
1974 APHRODITE 1: Heraklion, Greece - Larnaca, Cyprus Câbles de Lyon OTE Marcel Bayard System 520 nm. WFS 1998  
1974 ADONIS: Larnaca, Cyprus - Beirut, Lebanon Câbles de Lyon OTE Marcel Bayard System 118 nm. WFS 1998  
1974 Rome, Italy - Cagliari, Sardinia 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 301 nm., with 48 repeaters Loading cable 24 February - 5 March 1974. Laying from 11-31 March 1974. WFS 1998  
1974 BARO: Barcelona, Spain - Rome, Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Italian PTT Mercury System 513 nm., with 82 repeaters. Loading cable 4-16 February 1974. WFS 1998  
1974 HAW 3: San Luis Obispo, California - Makaha, Hawaii Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1600 nm. - ITT (San Diego) - Ocean Cable Co AT&T Long Lines - KDD Maru System 2379 nm. WFS June 1993. 2160 + 2160 kHz
1974 Mori - Muroran No 2 Ocean Cable Co NTT ?    
1975 TPC 2: Hawaii - Guam - Okinawa Ocean Cable Co - ITT (San Diego) - Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd 1600 nm. AT&T - KDD Long Lines System 5030 nm., with 525 repeaters. KDD Maru laid the shore ends at Guam and Okinawa. WFS April 1994. Used for earthquake research. 845 channels
1975 Kagoshima - Okinawa Ocean Cable Co NTT ?    
1975 ECSC: Reihohu, Japan - Nanhui, China Ocean Cable Co KDD KDD Maru Ssystem 560 km. WFS 1997. 480 channels
1975 TELPAL: Tel-Aviv, Israel - Palo, Italy Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Italian PTT John W. Mackay - Alert (4) System 1470 nm., with 230 repeaters. 1974. LOADING; LOAD 1, John W. Mackay 21-30 October; LOAD 2, Alert (4) 19-26 November; LOAD 3, John W. Mackay; LOAD 5, John W. Mackay ? LAYING; LAY 1, John W. Mackay 8-16 November; LAY 3, John W. Mackay 30 December 1974 - 13 January 1975; LAY 5, John W. Mackay 31 January - 15 February 1975 1380 x 4 kHz channels
1975 Rome - Palermo Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT John W. Mackay System 251 nm.  
1975 Goonhilly, England - Sopelana, Spain 2 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - Spanish PTT Mercury System 466 nm., with 73 repeaters. LOAD 1, 17-23 March; LOAD 2, 10-15 April; LAY 2 16-21 April 1975 1380 x 4 kHz channels
1975 Germany - Sweden Ocean Cable Co - Nippon Electric German PTT - Swedish PTT Salernum    
1975 Broadstairs, England - Domburg, Holland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO - Dutch PTT Alert (4) System 83 nm., with 13 repeaters. Loading 11-15 September. Laying 16-22 September 1974 1380 x 4 kHz channels
1975 AEGEUS: Greece - Crete Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton Main cable; STC Greenwich Shore ends Greek PTT John W. Mackay System 184 nm. Loading 7-10 May. Laying 31 May - 12 June 1975  
1975 St Raphael - La Foux Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 19 nm.  
1975 ANIBAL: Canet, France - Bizerta, Tunisia Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 509 nm. WFS 1998  
1975 Algeria - Majorca Câbles de Lyon ? Marcel Bayard System 181 nm.  
1976 TASMAN 1: Australia - New Zealand Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton AOTC - NZPO Mercury System 1258 nm. Loading 7-23 July; Laying 31 August - 9 October 1975. WFS July 2001 480 x 5 kHz channels
1976 APNG: Cairns, Australia - Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton AOTC John W. Mackay System 485 nm. Loading 2-11 December 1975. This was the last cable expedition for CS John W. Mackay. WFS March 2006 480 x 5 MHz channels
1976 TAT 6: Green Hill, Rhode Island - St Hilaire de Riez, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2400 nm. - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 95 nm. - Cables de Lyon 1200 nm. Various Long Lines System 3600 nm., with 745 repeaters. Vercors laid all shore ends. WFS 1994 12000 + 12000 kHz. 4000 channels
1976 Eastbourne (Cuckmere), England - Courseulles (Gray sur Mer), France Câbles de Lyon GPO - French PTT Vercors System 108 nm. WFS 1 January 1993 25 MHz system, 3440 circuits
1976 MARPAL: France - Italy Cbles de Lyon French PTT - Italian PTT Vercors System 371 nm., with 87 repeaters 2580 channels
1976 Italy - Turkey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT Mercury System 1085 nm., with 143 repeaters  
1976 Calvi - Ile Rousse (France) Câbles de Lyon French PTT ? System 11 nm. WFS 1993  
1977 Rome - Palermo Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton and Greenwich Italian PTT Mercury System 251 nm Loading Mercury at Greenwich 19-24 February; Loading Mercury at Southampton 25-28 February 1977  
1977 Vancouver - Hawaii ? ? Long Lines    
1977 California - Hawaii ? ? Long Lines    
1977 OLU(HO): Okinawa, Japan - Luzon, Philippines Cable from Ocean Cable Company. Repeaters from NEC and Fujitsu. Laid by KDD KDD - ETPI KDD Maru System 749 nm. Okiwana shore ends laid by Denko Maru - Luzon shore ends by Recorder (3). WFS June 1997. Used for oceanographic research.  
1977 (O)LUHO: Currimao, Luzon, Philippines - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong STC. Laid by Cable & Wireless KDD - ETPI Mercury System 475 nm. Recorder (3) laid all shore ends. WFS June 1997 1200 channels
1977 AMITIE: France - Tetuan Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 821 nm.  
1977 ANTINEA: Casablanca, Morocco - Dakar, Senegal Câbles de Lyon France Cables & Radio Vercors System 1460 nm.  
1977 FRATERNITE: Dakar - Abidjan, Ivory Coast Câbles de Lyon France Cables & Radio Vercors System 1415 nm.  
1977 Bastia, Corsica - La Seyne sur Mer, France Câbles de Lyon French PTT Vercors System 181 nm. WFS 1995  
1977 England - Belgium Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton GPO Alert (4) System 56 nm. Loading Alert 30 May - 5 June 1977 3900 x 4 kHz channels
1977 PENBAL 2: Spain - Majorca Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton CTNE Mercury System 169 nm. Loading Mercury 30 March - 8 April; Laying Mercury 9-22 April 1977  
1978 OKITAI: Okinawa - Toucheng, Taiwan ? ? KDD Maru System 650 km. WFS 1997. Used for oceanographic research. 480 channels
1978 England - France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - French PTT ? System 60 nm.  
1978 Morocco - France Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors    
1978 Barcelona - Majorca ? Spanish PTT Mercury    
1978 ASEAN: Philippines - Singapore Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ASEAN Countries Cable Venture System 1534 nm. MV Cap Villano laid the shore ends. WFS June 1997 1380 Channels
1978 COLUMBUS 1: Camuri, Venezuela - Agimes, Canary Islands Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton CTNE Mercury System 3240 nm. LOADING LOAD 1, Mercury 11-19 October 1976; LOAD 4, Mercury 29 April - 6 May 1977; LOAD 5, Mercury 8-18 June 1977. LAYING LAY 4, Mercury 8-28 May 1977; LAY 5 Mercury 26 June - 13 July 1977. WFS 1997  
1978 PENCAN 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd CTNE Cable Venture System 743 nm.  
1979 Genoa, Italy - Cabrer de Mar, Spain Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT - Spanish PTT ? System 389 nm. WFS 1996  
1979 Kuantan - Kuching ? Malay Telecom KDD Maru System 1358 km. WFS November 1995  
1979 USA - Guatemala ? ? Long Lines    
1979 England - Holland No 10 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 119 nm.  
1979 Genoa, Italy - Sassari, Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT ? System 272 nm.  
1979 Eastbourne (Cuckmere) - St Valery en Caux, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO - French PTT Alert (4) System 60 nm. 25 MHz, 4200 circuits.
1979 France - Libya Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 842 nm.  
1979 Tripoli - Benghazi   Libyan PTT Cable Venture System 370 nm.  
1979 TAGIDE 1: Penmarc'h, France - Sesimbra, Portugal Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel manufactured the repeaters CPRM - France Telecom Vercors System 790 nm. WFS 2000 2580 x 4 kHz channels
1979 Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Is - Maiqueta, Venezuela ? AT&T Long Lines System 1037 km. WFS 1996 2160 + 2160 kHz
1979 Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Fortaleza, Brazil ? AT&T Long Lines System 4178 km. WFS 1997 2160 + 2160 kHz
1980 JKC: Hamada, Japan - Pusan, Korea ? ? KDD Maru System 285 km. WFS 1997. Used for oceanographic research. 480 channels
1980 TAILU: Taipei, Taiwan - Luzon, Philippines Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ETPI Cable Venture System 557 nm. WFS June 1997. 480 channels
1980 TAIGU: Taipei, Taiwan - Tanguisson Point, Guam ? AT&T ? WFS 1995. 480 channels
1980 PALMYRA: Greece - Syria ? ? Vercors System 646 nm.  
1980 England - Spain No 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 429 nm.  
1980 England - Denmark No 3 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton BT Alert (4) System 301 nm. Loading 10-14 April 1980  
1980 Ivory Coast - Nigeria Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 604 nm.  
1980 France - Algeria 4 Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 442 nm.  
1980 ASEAN: Ancol, Indonesia - Singapore   ASEAN Countries Kuroshio Maru - Chosui Maru laid the shore ends System 572 nm. WFS June 1997. 480 channels
1981 IOCOM: Madras, India - Penang, Malaya Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd VSNL Cable Venture System 1353 nm. Recorder laid the shore ends at Penang. Inaugrated 24 December 1981. WFS 2003. 480 channels
1981 TIMOR: China Sea Câbles de Lyon ? ? System 165 nm.  
1981 ARTEMIS: France - Greece 2 Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 1053 nm.  
1981 CI 6: Dartmouth, England -Greve de Lecq, Jersey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT ? System 109 nm. 1380 x 4kHz channels. (23 Supergroups)
1982 ATLANTIS Section 1: Recife, Brazil - Dakar, Senegal Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TELESENEGAL - EMBRATEL Cable Venture System 1855 nm. LOAD 1, Loading Cable Venture 15 October - 2 November 1981. WFS 2000 1380 x 4kHz channels
1982 ATLANTIS Section 2: Dakar, Senegal - Burgau, Portugal Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel manufactured the repeaters CPRM - TELESENEGAL Vercors System 1570 nm. WFS 2000 2580 x 4 kHz channels
1982 APOLLO: Greece - Cyprus Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? Cable Venture System 638 nm.  
1982 Sicily - Sardinia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Italian PTT ? System 247 nm. WFS 1998  
1983 ATLAS: Burgau, Portugal - Arzila, Morocco Câbles de Lyon CPRM - MATELCA Vercors System 193 nm. WFS 1999 1260 x 4kHz channels
1983 ASEAN: Singapore - Malaysia - Thailand Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ASEAN Countries KDD Maru - Kuroshio Maru System 920 nm. Kaiko Maru laid the shore ends. WFS April 1998. 480 channels
1983 TAT 7: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Porthcurno, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2700 nm. 2400 lightweight non armoured and 300 nm armoured cable - Câbles de Lyon 690 nm - Western Electric 677 repeaters and 24 equalisers AT&T - France Telecom - BT Alert (4) - Vercors - Long Lines - Monarch (5) System 3286 nm. 4000 voice circuits. Alert (4) carried out the route survey. Monarch (5) laid the UK shore ends. Vercors laid 110 nm armoured cable with 20 repeaters and one equaliser from previously laid US shore end and 190 nm armoured cable with 36 repeaters and one equaliser over UK shelf. Long Lines laid remaining cable in four sessions. WFS 1994 4000 x 3kHz
1983 Vero Beach, Florida - St Thomas, US Virgin Islands ? AT&T ? System 2074 km. WFS 1997 12000 + 12000 kHz
1983 Denmark - Holland ? ? Vercors System 123 nm.  
1983 MERIDIAN: Belgium - Spain Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 735 nm.  
1983 DIDON: France - Tunisia Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 498 nm.  
1983 Northern Island - Scotland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd GPO ? System 26 nm.  
1983 Kitasaki - Oroshima ? NTT ? First repeaterless fibre optic cable laid in Japanese waters  
1984 ANZCAN: Auckland, New Zealand - Norfolk Island Fujitsu AOTC - COTC - NZPO Mercury System 720 nm. Mercury laid the Auckland shore ends, MV Chantik those at Norfolk Island. WFS November 1997 480 x 5 MHz
1984 ANZCAN: Sydney, Australia - Norfolk Island - Suva, Fiji - Hawaii - Vancouver, Canada Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton 7448 nm. AOTC - COTC - NZPO Cable Venture - Mercury System 7300 nm.CS Retriever (5) laid the Fiji shore ends. LOADING LOAD 1, Cable Venture 6-11 and 19-26 October 1982; LOAD 2, Mercury 22 November - 2 December 1982; LOAD 5, Transferred from Freighter Brookness at Noumea, Vanuatu 4-30 October 1983; LOAD 7, Cable Venture 14 - 23 January 1984; Spare cable Pacific Guardian 15-16 November 1984. LAYING LAY 2, Mercury 6-28 January 1983; LAY 5, Cable Venture 31 October - 24 November 1983. Canada - Hawaii section WFS November 1997, Fiji - Norfolk Island March 2001, the rest of the cable May 2002. 1380 channel 14 MHz coaxial analogue. New Zealand - Norfolk Island 480 channel 5 MHz coaxial analogue
1984 CAYMAN - CAYMAN BRAC Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies) Ltd Cable Venture System 130 nm.  
1984 Okinawa - Ninomiya ? ? KDD Maru    
1984 Medan, Indonesia - Penang, Malaysia ? ? ? WFS 1997.  
1984 MESING: Indonesia - Singapore Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 346 nm.  
1984 France - Morocco Câbles de Lyon ? Vercors System 34 nm.  
1984 Antibes, France - Port Grimaud ASN French PTT Raymond Croze System 80 km  
1984 England - Holland No 11 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 84 nm.  
1984 SHT: Katong, Singapore - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton ? Cable Venture System 1500 nm. LOAD 1, Cable Venture 26 July - 9 August 1984; LOAD 2, Cable Venture 23 October - 5 November 1984 1380 channels
1984 Archirondel, Jersey - St Remy des Landes, France ? Channel Islands Electricity Grid Ltd ? System 27 km. 3 core oil filled 90kV - 55MW AC power cable  
1985 SHT: Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Toucheng, Taiwan Fujitsu ? Cable Venture System 720 nm. WFS April 1999. 480 channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment A: Singapore - Indonesia Submarcom, Calais ? Vercors System 641 km. Loading shore ends Vercors 19-23 December 1984. WFS June 1999 1260 channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment B: Indonesia - Sri Lanka Fujitsu ? Cable Venture System 2638 km. WFS June 1999. 1080 channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment C: Sri Lanka - Djibouti Submarcom ? Vercors System 4326 km. WFS June 1999 1080 Channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment D: Djibouti - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton ? Cable Venture System 1443 km. Loading Cable Venture 28 February - 9 March 1985. WFS 1999 1080 Channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment E: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - Suez, Egypt Submarcom ? Vercors System 1293 km. WFS 1999 1080 Channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment F: Suez - Alexandria, Egypt Siemens ?   System 390 km. Landline. WFS 1999 1080 Channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment G: Alexandria, Egypt - Palermo, Italy Submarcom ? Vercors System 1908 km. WFS 1999 1080 Channels
1985 SEA-ME-WE 1: Segment H: Palermo, Italy - La Seyne sur Mer, France Submarcom ? Vercors System 946 km. The complete cable came into service in 1986. WFS 1999 1080 Channels
1986 UAE-PAKISTAN Fujitsu Etilsat Cable Venture System 620 nm. MV Al Amin laid the Karachi shore ends  
1986 Marseille, France -Ajaccio, Corsica 3 Câbles de Lyon - Alcatel-CIT French PTT Vercors System 400 nm. WFS 1998  
1986 OPTICAN: Tenerife - Gran Canaria Tyco Telefonica Long Lines System 107 km. WFS 2000 4 x 140 Mb/s
1986 AIS 1: Perth, Australia - Ancol, Indonesia - Singapore Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton ? Cable Venture System 2517 nm. LOADING Load 1 (B) Cable Venture 11 November - 28 November 1985; Load 1 (A) Freighter Tarpon Santiago 24 November - 8 December 1985; Load 2 (A) Freighter Taeping 24 - 29 January 1986. LAYING Cable Venture 3 - 23 February 1986. Australia - Indonesia WFS July 1999. Indonesia - Singapore October 1999 1380 x 14 MHz
1987 Broadstairs, England - Ostende, Belgium 5 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton BT - Belgacom Alert (4) System 58 nm. First commercial fibre optic cable. Load Alert 15-19 April 1986; Laying 26 April - 6 May 1986. In service 1987, WFS January 2005 3 x 280 Mb/s
1987 UAE-INDIA: Fujairah, UAE- Mumbai, India Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Tata Communications Cable Venture System 1380 nm. MV Galaxa laid Mumbai shore ends. Laying began 18 Feb 1987. Cable inaugrated 10 Nov 1987 1380 channels
1988 TPC 3: Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii - Tanguisson Point, Guam - Chikura, Japan Ocean Cable Co. - Fujitsu (Guam - Hawaii 3760 km) KDD - AT&T Long Lines - KDD Maru System 9161 km. KDD Maru laid Japanese shore ends. WFS October 2003 560 Mb/s. 2 x 280 Mb/s fibre pairs
1988 Taiwan Domestic ? IDTC ? System 87 km. 480 channels
1988 Holyhead, Wales - Portmarnock, Ireland 1 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - Eircom ? System 130 km unrepeatered 6 x 140 Mb/s
1988 Scarborough, England - Blaabjerg, Denmark 4 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton BT - TDC Alert (4) System 640 km. Loading Alert 6 - 12 June 1988. WFS September 2004 2 x 280 Mb/s
1988 Hornsudde, Sweden - Fridtorp, Gotland ? Telia K/F Wartena System 92 km. 3 x 140 Mb/s
1988 ROMSAR: Pomezia, Italy - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia Pirelli - ASN Telecom Italia Raymond Croze System 267 km. 3 x 280 Mb/s
1988 TAT 8: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Widemouth Bay, England - Penmarc'h, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 870 km - ALCATEL 360 km AT&T - BT - France Telecom Vercors - Long Lines - Alert (4) System 6705 km. Vercors laid French Continental shelf section 360 km of which 254 km was buried. First fibre optic Atlantic cable. In connection with this cable CS Alert carried out plough trial 1 - 11 July 1986. Alert laid the UK shore end and laid and buried the intermediate section of the cable. 40,000 voice circuits. WFS 2002 280 Mb/s
1988 West Palm Beach, Florida - Cojimar, Cuba ? AT&T - CATT ? System 327 nm. This cable was constructed from the shore end of Florico 1 and parts of TAT 3. WFS 2001  
1988 Weybourne, England - North Sea Platforms STC Submarine Systems BT ? System 142 km. WFS 2005 2 Mb/s
1989 UK-NETHERLANDS 12: Aldeburgh, England - Domburg, Holland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd MCL - BT - KPN Flexservice III - Sir Eric Sharp System 155 km. FO repeaterless. WFS January 2005 560 Mb/s
1989 PTAT 1: Manasquan, USA - Devonshire, Bermuda - Ballinspittle, Ireland - Brean, England Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton - 4100 nm C&W - Sprint Cable Venture - Mercury System 4060 nm. Cable Protector laid USA shore ends - Forth Explorer UK shore ends - Northern, Bermuda shore ends. LOADING Load 5, Cable Venture 17 - 19 May 1989; Post lay burial of R5, Cable Protector with Cirrus ROV. WFS 2006 420 Mb/s
1989 HAW 4: Point Arena, California - Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii AT&T SSI AT&T - Hawaiian Telephone Co Vercors System 4238 km. WFS February 2004 280 Mb/s
1989 PENBAL 3: Cabrera de Mar - Molina, Spain ? Telefonica ? System 297 km. 3 x 280 Mb/s
1989 PENCAN 4 - C1: Spain - BU AT&T SSI Telefonica Vercors System 1345 km. Vercors laid 148 km of which 60 km was buried 3 x 280 Mb/s
  PENCAN 4 - C2: BU - Altavista, Gran Canaria - Candelaria, Tenerife AT&T SSI Telefonica   System 84 km. 2 x 280 Mb/s
  PENCAN 4 - C3: BU - Candelaria - Altavista AT&T SSI Telefonica   System 41 km. 2 x 280 Mb/s
1989 SARSIC: Golfo d'Aranci, Sardinia - Palermo, Sicily ASN 280 km. Pirelli 230 km Telecom Italia Raymond Croze System 508 km. 3 x 280 Mb/s
1989 UK-FRANCE 3: Brighton, England - Dieppe, France Càbles de Lyon MCL - BT - France Telecom Alert (4) System 155 km. FO repeaterless. 6 x 140 Mb/s. Upgraded to 2.5 Gb/s in 1994
1989 CI 7: Dartmouth, England - L'Ancresse Bay, Guernsey Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - C&W Guernsey ? System 124 km.
Listed as running to Stoke Fleming/Blackpool Sands
2.5 Gb/s. 6 fibre pairs
1989 Portpatrick, Scotland - Donaghadee, N Ireland ? BT ? System 35 km. 6 x 560 Mb/s
1989 Denmark - Bornholm ? Tele Danmark ? System 150 km.  
1989 Hillerod, Denmark - Helinsborg, Sweden 15 ? Tele Danmark - TeliaSonera ? System 15 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1989 CARAC: Bermuda - Tortola 2 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd C&W (West Indies Ltd) Mercury System 1692 km. Cable Protector laid Tortola shore end 420 Mb/s
1989 Chikura - Ninomiya ? KDD KDD Maru System 194 km. 260 Mb/s
1989 Taiwan Domestic ? CHT - LDM ? System 104 km. 4 x 420 Mb/s
1989 Cebu, Philippines - Negros, Philippines ? PLDT ? System 93 km. 2 x 140 Mb/s
? England - France - Germany ?   ? System 474 km.  
1990 HJK: Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Chikura, Japan - Cheju, Korea Fujitsu KDD - NHK - KT Cable Venture System 4700 km. Kommander Subsea laid Hong Kong shore ends. WFS June 2004. 560 Mb/s. 2 x 280 Mb/s fibre pairs
1990 Genoa, Italy - Golfo d'Aranchi, Sardinia ? Telecom Italia ? System 440 km. 3 x 280 Mb/s
1990 Genoa - Pisa ? Telecom Italia   System 143 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1990 Lametia T - Messina - S. Agata - Palermo ? Telecom Italia   System 108 + 112 + 116 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1990 Capri - Massalubrense ? Telecom Italia   System 15 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1990 Cetara - Majori - Vettica ? Telecom Italia   System 16 + 16 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1990 Piombino - Elba ? Telecom Italia   System 11 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1990 Procida - Bacoli ? Telecom Italia   System 10 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1990 Millom, England - Douglas Isle Of Man Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - Manx Telecom Flexservice III System 155 km unrepeatered 6 x 140 Mb/s
1990 Korea Domestic ? KT ? System 144 km. 3 x 280 Mb/s
1990 Japan Domestic ? NTT ? System 300 km. 3 x 1.8 Gb/s
1990 Japan Domestic ? IDC ? System 119 km. 6 x 140 Gb/s
1990 HON TAI 2: Cape D'Aguilar, Hong Kong - Fangshan, Taiwan Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 730 km. ? Northern Installer System 735 km. WFS June 2003 420 Mb/s
1990 GPT:Tanguisson Point, Guam - Infanta, Philippines - Fangshan, Taiwan ? ? ? System 3749 km. WFS April 2003. 1 x 280 Mb/s
1990 Kuantan - Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia Fujitsu TM Kuroshio Maru System 1570 km. WFS March 2004 840 Mb/s. 2 x 420 Mb/s fibre pairs
1990 Almeira, Spain - Mellilla Alcatel Telefonica Vercors System 195 km. 127 km of this cable was buried 4 x 140 Mb/s + 1 x 2.5 Mb/s
1990 Almeira - Roquetas, Spain Alcatel Telefonica Vercors System 23 km. 5 x 565 Mb/s
1990 TRANSCAN 2 - S1: Agüimes, Gran Canaria - Morrojable, Fuerteventura Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 235 km. Telefonica Vercors System 147 km. 5 x 140 Mb/s + 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1990 TRANSCAN 2 - S2: Pto Rosario, Fuerteventura - Arrecife, Lanzarote Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Telefonica Vercors System 91km. 6 x 140 Mb/s
1990 FLORICO 2: West Palm Beach, USA - San Juan, Puerto Rico ? AT&T ? System 1877 km. WFS January 2004 280 Mb/s
1990 TCS 1: San Juan, Puerto Rico - Baranquilla, Colombia - Santo Domingo, Dominican R - Kingston, Jamaica ? AT&T - MCI - Sprint ? System 2593 km. WFS January 2004 140 Mb/s
1990 Oteranga Bay - Fighting Bay, Cook Strait, New Zealand ? Transpower NZ Ltd ? System 2 repeaterless cables laid each of 42 km. 560 Mb/s
1991 NORTH PACIFIC CABLE: Pacific City, Oregon - Miura, Japan: Pacific City, Oregon - Seward, Alaska Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 5670 km. - Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu ? Cable Venture - Northern Installer - Kuroshio Maru System 9531 km. Cable Protector buried 200 km of cable. WFS 2004 1680 Mb/s. 4 x 420 Mb/s fibre pairs
1991 Cook Strait 4,5 and 6: Oteranga Bay - Fighting Bay ? Transpower NZ Ltd ? 3 350kV DC power cables each 42 km in length.  
1991 PENBAL 4: Ibiza - Mallorca - Valencia, Spain Alcatel Telefonica Vercors System 317 km of which 190 km was buried 2 x 2.5 Gb/s + 2 x 622 Mb/s + 2 x 140 Mb/s
1991 EMOS 1: Palermo, Italy - Lechaina, Greece - Marmaris, Turkey - Tel Aviv, Israel Alcatel, France 2881 km. Telecom Italia - OTE - Turk Telecom - Bazeq Vercors System 3100 km. 1 x 280 Mb/s
1991 UK-FRANCE 4: Bay Hill, England - Dunkerque, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd BT - MCL - France Telecom ? System 93 km. FO repeaterless. WFS January 2006 6 x 560 Mb/s
1991 UK-BELGIUM 6: St Margarets Bay, England - Veume, Belgium 6 Pirelli BT - Belgacom ? System 100 km. WFS January 2006. This and the system above used the same beach manhole in UK. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1991 UK-GERMANY 5: Winterton, England - Germany Fujitsu MCL - BT - German PTT Northern Installer System 482 km. 459 km. ploughed. 6 repeaters. WFS January 2006 3.6 Gb/s consisting of 2 fibre pairs at 1.8 Gb/s per pair
1991 Hillerod, Denmark - Helinsborg, Sweden 16 ? Tele Danmark - Telia ? System 15 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1991 Gedebak Odde, Denmark - Mielno, Poland 2 ? Polish Telecom - Tele Danmark ? System 110 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1991 MAT 2: Palermo, Italy - Malaga, Spain Pirelli - AT&T Telecom Italia - Telefonica Vercors System 1860 km of which 104 km was buried 1 x 565 Mb/s
1991 MAT 2: Palma, Majorca - Malaga, Spain Alcatel - AT&T Telecom Italia - Telefonica Vercors System 135 km of which 52 km was buried 1 x 565 Mb/s
1991 Vettica - Praiano - Positano, Italy ? Telecom Italia ? System 12 + 14 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1991 Procida - Ischia: Vietra - Cetara, Italy ? Telecom Italia ? System 12 + 8 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1991 Pisa - Grosseto - Civitaecchia - Pomezia - Formia - Naples - Salerno - Scalea - Lametia T, Italy Pirelli Telecom Italia Vercors System 149 + 129 + 125 + 142 + 62 + 140 + 163 + 131 km. Vercors laid Pisa - Grosseto; Naples - Salerno and Salerno -Scalea sections 6 x 565 Mb/s
1991-4 Genoa - Pisa ? Telecom Italia ? System 13, 13, 13 km. Three cables laid in 1991, 1992 and 1994. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1991 Kennack Sands, Goonhilly, UK - Rodiles, Spain 4 Alcatel 840 km BT - Telefonica ? System 832 km. 15 repeaters spaced at 56 km intervals. WFS January 2005 4 x 420 Mb/s
1991 Taiwan Domestic ASN 153 + 9 km. CHT-LDM ? System 149 km. 1 x 140 Mb/s, 1 x 560 Mb/s
1991 Point Halswell - Eastborne, Wellington Harbour, New Zealand ? TNZ ? System repeaterless fibre optic 7 km.  
1991 APOCS Canada Domestic. APOCS 1A, Margaretsville, Nova Scotia - Rogers Head, New Brunswick. APOCS 1B, Nova Scotia - Prince Edward Island. APOCS 1C, Aspy Bay, Cape Breton - Newfoundland. APOCS 2, Sydney Mines, Cape Breton - Newfoundland. STC Newfoundland Telephone - Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Discovery System 22 + 55 + 180 km  
1991 TAT 9: Manahawkin, USA - Pennant Point, Canada - Goonhilly, England - St Hilaire de Riez, France - Conil, Spain STC 4410 km. - AT&T SSI - Alcatel (Submarcom) AT&T - BT - France Telecom - Telefonica - Teleglobe Vercors System 8910 km. Vercors laid 429 km of which 226 km was buried. 80,000 voice circuits. WFS January 2004 560 Mb/s
1992 BS: Brunei - Singapore Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu ? Northern Installer System 1545 km. Ploughed 1018 km. WFS September 2003 1120 Mb/s 2 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1992 BMP: Brunei - Malaysia - Philippines Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu ? Northern Installer System 1504 km. Ploughed 205 km. WFS March 2004. 1120 Mb/s 2 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1992 TPC 4: Manchester, California - Port Alberni, British Columbia, Canada - Chikura, Japan Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu AT&T - KDD - Teleglobe Long Lines - KDD Maru - Global Sentinel - Ocean Link System 9843 km. First fibre optic cable between USA and Japan. WFS July 2004. 1680 Mb/s. 3 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1992 TAT 10: Greenhill, USA - Norden, Germany - Terschelling - Alkmaar, Holland AT&T SSI - STC 169 + 155 km. AT&T - DTAG - KPN Global Link - Seaspread - Flexservice III System 7354 km. WFS Jul 2003 560 Mb/s - Germany - Holland 3 x 565 Mb/s
1992 Chikura - Miyazaki ? ? KDD Maru - Ocean Link System 1055 km. 3 x 1.8 Gb/s
1992 UAE - Iran Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd ? ? System 170 km.  
1992 Taiwan Domestic ASN 185 + 30 + 15 + 70 km. CHT-LDM ? System 276 km. 560 Mb/s
1992 Indonesia Domestic: Surabaya - Benjarmasin Fujitsu PT Telkom Kuroshio Maru System 387 km. 1 x 280 Mb/s
1992 TASMAN 2: Sydney, Australia - Whenuapi, Auckland, New Zealand Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TNZ Vercors System 2225 km of which 55 km was buried 2 x 560 Mb/s
1992 EURAFRICA: St Hilaire, France - Sesimbra, Portugal - Casablanca, Morocco - Funchal, Madeira Alcatel - Cables de Lyon France Cable et Radio - Marconi -ONPT Vercors 1584 km. - Northern Installer 1501 km. System 3279 km. 165 km was buried 2 x 560 Mb/s
1992 Hjorring, Denmark - Arendal, Norway 5 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TDC - Norway PTT ? System 130 km. 4 x 565 Mb/s
1992 Thisted, Denmark - Kristiansand, Norway 6 Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TDC - Norway PTT ? System 120 km. 3 x 565 Mb/s
1992 Denmark - Germany 1 ? DTAG - Tele Danmark ? System 293 km. WFS 31 Dec 2009 2 x 565 Mb/s
1992 EESF 2: Tallin, Estonia - Helsinki, Finland ? Telecom Finland - Estonian Telephone ? 98 km. 1 x 622 Mb/s + 3 x 2.5 Gb/s + 1 x 10 Gb/s
1992 LANIS: England - IOM - N Ireland - Scotland NKT C&W Seaspread System 300 km all buried. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1992 TAINO CARIB: San Juan - Isla Verda, Puerto Rico - Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Tortola, Br Virgin Islands AT&T SSI AT&T - C&W Mercury System 182 km. 565 Mb/s
1992 CORSAR: Ajaccio, Corsica - Golfo Aranci, Sardinia Pirelli Telecom Italia Raymond Croze System 190 km. 3 x 565 Mb/s + 2 x 622 Mb/s
1993 Albertslund, Denmark - Kingisepp, Russia Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd TeleDanmark - Great Northern Telegraph Co Dock Express 20 System 1250 km. At the end of WWI & WWII large amounts of munitions, including Mustard Gas, were dumped on the seabed along the route of the cable and so a toxic decontamination crew was carried aboard the CS during laying 2 x 140 Mb/s
1993 Gedser, Denmark - Ribnitz, Germany 2 ? DTAG - Tele Danmark ? System 45 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1993 Burg, Germany - Trelleborg, Sweden 4 Siemens Telia - DTAG Pleijel System 205 km. WFS 2 Jan 2009 3 x 622 Mb/s
1993 Ribnitz, Germany - Ystad, Sweden 5 Siemens Telia - DTAG Pleijel System 162 km. WFS 2 Jan 2009 3 x 622 Mb/s
1993 SFS 4: Turku - Mariehamn, Finland: Norrtãlje, Sweden - Mariehamn , Finland Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Telia - Sonera Pleijel - Telepaatti System 254 km. Turku - Mariehamn 1 x 2.5 Gb/s + WDM.
1993 Brean, England - Swansea, Wales Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Mercury Communications Galatea System 97 km.  
1993 Cabrera de Mar, Spain - Marsella, France Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd Telefonica - Telecom France ? System 386 km. WFS 2004 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 PENCAN 5: Spain - Gran Canaria - Tenerife Alcatel 1460 km. Telefonica ? System 1560 km. 4 x 560 Mb/s + 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1993 Catania - R. Calabria: Catania - Locri - Catanzaro ? Telecom Italia ? System 108, 170 + 127 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1993 TURCYOS: Turkish Domestic Alcatel CYTA ? System 110 km.  
1993 PACRIM EAST: Keawaula, Hawaii - Takapuna, New Zealand ASN 7730 km - TCC AT&T - TNZ Vercors System 7855 km. 148 km was buried 560 Mb/s
1993 APC: Katong, Singapore - Cherating, Malaysia - Cape D'Aguilar, Hong Kong - Toucheng, Taiwan - Miura - Miyazaki, Japan Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu IDC - KDDI - Singtel Cable Venture 2950 km. - Cable Innovator - Ocean Link System 7516 km. WFS 1 Apr 2006 1680 Mb/s. 3 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1993 TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France AT&T SSI - STC 5286 km. - ALCATEL AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Galatea System 12 km. UK shore end The whole cable was buried. WFS July 2003 560 Mb/s
1993 TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Dock Express 20 System 153 km. US shelf. 144 km ploughed. 560 Mb/s
1993 TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Flexservice III System 597 km. UK shelf. 194 km ploughed 560 Mb/s
1993 TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Flexservice III System 535 km. French shelf. 223 km ploughed. 560 Mb/s
1993 TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Flexservice III System 2736 km. Main lay 560 Mb/s
1993 TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France See above AT&T - C&W - France Telecom Mercury System 3041 km. Main lay 560 Mb/s
1993 C-J FOSC: Nanhui, China - Miyazaki, Japan ? KDDI - China Telecom Ocean Link System 1252 km. 560 Mb/s
1993 Thailand Domestic ASN ? ? System 1300 km. 6 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 1: Singapore - Indonesia Alcatel Submarcom ? Vercors - Skandi Hav System 1040 km. Skandi Hav assisted Vercors during the laying of various sections. SEA-ME-WE 2 was WFS Oct 2006 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 Indonesia - Sri Lanka - India Alcatel Submarcom 4205 km. - STC Submarine Systems 1260 km. ? Vercors System 5465 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 2.4, 2.5 India - Djibouti STC Submarine Systems   Cable Venture System 3665 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 3 Djibouti - Saudi Arabia - Suez AT&T SSI ? Global Sentinel System 2760 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 4 Suez - Alexandria Alcatel Cable ?   System 2 land cables 400 km and 470 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 5 Egypt - Italy - Tunisia - Algeria - France Alcatel Submarcom ? Vercors System 3660 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 6 Egypt - Cyprus AT&T SSI ? Global Sentinel System 600km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SEA-ME-WE 2: SEGMENT 7 Egypt - Turkey AT&T SSI ? Global Sentinel System 690 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 SAT 2: Melkbosstrand, South Africa - El Medano, Tenerife - Funchal, Madeira - Sesimbra, Portugal Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd - ALCATEL SUBMARCOM Telkom SA - Telefonica - Marconi Vercors - Sovereign System 9500 km. 57 km buried. Vercors laid 5765 km. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1993 HAW 5: San Luis Obispo, California - Keawaula, Hawaii AT&T SSI - Tyco Simplex Wire & Cable Co AT&T Global Sentinel System 4775 km. WFS July 2005 560 Mb/s
1993 GEORGIA North & South: Canadian Domestic linking Vancouver Island, Lulu Island and Galiano Island to the mainland ? TCI ? System 162 km.  
1993 Cyprus - Israel AT&T SSI ? ? System 268 km repeaterless cable, 2 fibre pairs  
1993 Girvan, Scotland - Larne, Northern Ireland ? BT ? System 83 km 565 Mb/s
1994 TURMEOS ASN 1100 km Turkcom   System ?  
1994 Hawaii Inter Island System ? GTE Hawaiian Telephone Company ? System 480 km. 2.5 Gb/s - 622 Mb/s
1994 AMERICAS 1 South: Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Camuri, Venezuela - Macqueripe, Trinidad & Tobago - Fortaleza, Brazil Tyco Telecommunications SSI AT&T - Embratel - CANTV - TSTT Global Link System 6014 km. Initial 2.5 Gb/s. Upgraded to 120 Gb/s by Extera in 2010. Maximum capacity 560 Mb/s
1994 AMERICAS 1 South: Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - Camuri, Venezuela - Macqueripe, Trinidad & Tobago - Fortaleza, Brazil ASN Australia 1519 km - Tyco AT&T - Embratel - CANTV - TSTT Global Link System 6014 km Initial 2.5 Gb/s. Upgraded to 120 Gb/s. Maximum capacity 560 Mb/s
1994 COLUMBUS II: Palermo, Sicily - Funchal, Madeira - Gran Canaria - Magens Bay, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands - West Palm Beach, Florida - Cancun, Mexico Alcatel Submarcom 2628 km. - AT&T SSI - Pirelli AT&T - Telefonica - Marconi - Telecom Italia - Telmex Vercors - Skandi Hav System 12300 km of which 193 km was buried. Vercors laid 4717 km. Mexico - Florida 560 Mb/s: Florida - St Thomas 2.5 Gb/s: St Thomas - Italy 565 Mb/s
1994 CANTAT 3: Nova Scotia, Canada - Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - Tjornuvik, Faroes - Redcar, England - Blaabjerg, Denmark - Sylt, Germany ASN 7500 km. Teleglobe - Iceland Telecom - BT - Tele Danmark - DTAG ? System 7104 km. 3 x 2.5 Gb/s
1994 UNISUR: Florianopolis, Brazil - Maldonado, Uruguay - Las Toninas, Argentina ASN Australia 1700 km. Embratel - Telecom Argentina - Antel - Telefonica de Argentina - AT&T Dock Express 20 System 1716 km. 90% of the cable was buried 560 Mb/s. 3 fibre pairs
1994 CI 8: Goonhilly, England - St Ouens Bay, Jersey ASN BT - Jersey Telecoms ? System 237 km. 155 Mb/s 6 fibre pairs
1994 Inter CI 4: Saints Bay, Guernsey - Greve de Lecq, Jersey ASN C&W Guernsey - Jersey Telecoms ? System 37 km. 155 Mb/s 6 fibre pairs
1994 CELTIC: England - Ireland ASN BT - Eircom ? System 275 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1994 MT: Kuantan, Malaysia - Songkhla - Phetchaburi - Sri Racha, Thailand Fujitsu TM - CAT ? System 1500 km. 1120 Mb/s. 2 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1994 EESF 3: Helsinki, Finland - Meremõisa, Estonia ? Telecom Finland - Estonian Telephone ? System 104 km. Plus 68 km landline. 1 x 622 Mb/s + 3 x 2.5 Gb/s + 1 x 10 Gb/s
1994 SFS 5: Edsboviken, Sweden - Eurajokilahti, Finland NKT Telia - Telecom Finland Pleijel System 237 km. Plus 26 km landline. WFS June 2005 5 x 622 Mb/s + 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1994 LV-SE 1: Ventspils, Latvia - Nynãshamn, Sweden ? Lattelcom - C&W - Telecom Finland ? System 304 km. 622 Mb/s
1994 BOTNIA: Umeå, Sweden - Vaasa, Finland NKT TeliaSonera Pleijel System 93 km. 2 x 622 Mb/s
1994 TEGOPA: El Médano, Tenerife - San Sebastion, Gomera - Santa Cruz, Las Palmas ? Telefonica ? System 222 km. 2 x 622 Mb/s
1994 RJK: Nakhodka, Russia - Naoetsu, Japan - Pusan, Korea ASN 496 + 416 km. - Ocean Cable Co Segments B2-3 - Fujitsu KDD - Rosstelecom Kuroshio Maru - Maersk Recorder (473 km) System 1762 km. 1120 Mb/s. 2 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1994 Korea Domestic ASN 165 km. KT ? System 150 km. 140 Mb/s
1994 Mestre, Italy - Umag, Croatia ? Telecom Italia - HPT ? System 230 km 1 x 565 Mb/s
1994 KELTRA-2: Trapini, Sicily - Kelibia, Tunisia ? Telecom Italia - Tunisie Telecom ? System 209 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1994 Estepona, Spain - Tetuan, Morocco STC Submarine Systems Telefonica Vercors System 113 km. 6 x 622 Mb/s
1994 SFL - Sweden - Finland Link: Mariehamn, Finland - Väddö, Sweden ? TeliaSonera - TELE 2 ? System 142 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s + WDM
1994 Savona - Sardinia - Sicily ? Telecom Italia ? System 463 + 440 km 3 x 565 Mb/s
1994 Cannes - Ile Rousses, France ASN French PTT Raymond Croze System 195 km. 4 x 155 Mb/s
1994 APHRODITE-2: Cania, Greece - Yeroskipou, Cyprus ASN OTE - AT&T - Belgacom - BT - Cyprus Telecommunications Authority - France Telecom - Sprint - Verizon Skandi Hav System 868 km. 1.12 Gb/s
1994 CIOS: Ayia Napa, Cyprus - Nahariya, Israel ? CYTA - Bezeq ? System 250 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1995 GO-1: Catania, Sicily - St George's Bay, Malta: Mazara, Sicily - St Paul's Bay, Malta Alcatel-Lucent Submarine Networks Telecom Italia - Maltacom Teliri System 234 km. 1 x 565 Mb/s
1995 KYNIRAS STC Submarine Systems CYTA Skandi Hav System 154 km. 3 x 565 Mb/s
1995 Aden - Djibouti ASN Yemen PT - Djibouti PT Skandi Hav System 266 km.  
1995 CADMOS: Beirut, Lebanon - Pentaskhinos, Cyprus Tyco Telecommunications CYTA - Lebanon Telecom ? System 260 km. 2 fibre pairs 2 x 622 Mb/s
1995 PENBAL 5: Gavá - Ses Covetes, Spain ? Telefonica ? System 309 km 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 Mallorca - Menorca ASN Telefonica ? System 112 km 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 Savona, Italy - Monaco ? Telecom Italia - Monaco Telecom ? System 157 km. 1 fibre pair 1 x 565 Mb/s
1995 EE-S1: Stavsnãs, Sweden - Kãrdia, Tallinn, Estonia ASN Sweden 295 km. TeliaSonera Pleijel System 240 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 RIOJA S1: Cazoa, Spain - Porthcurno, England ASN Telefonica - BT ? System 939 km. WFS 13 Oct 2006 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 RIOJA 2B/3B: Santander, Spain - Goonhilly, England - Veume, Belgium - Alkmaar, Holland ASN Telefonica - BT - Belgacom - KPN Discovery - Nexus System 1737 km. WFS 13 Oct 2006 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 ODIN Segment 1: Maade, Denmark - Alkmaar, Holland: ASN KPN - Tele Danmark Nexus System 468 km. WFS 1 Dec 2006 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 ODIN Segment 2: Blaabjerg, Denmark - Kristiansand, Norway ? Tele Danmark - Telenor ? System 302 km. WFS 1 Dec 2006 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 ODIN Segment 3: Kristiansand, Norway - Lysekil, Sweden ASN Telenor - TeliaSonera Nexus System 220 km. WFS May 2006 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 CKC: Qingdao, China - Taean, Korea ASN KT - CT Flexservice III System 549 km. WFS June 2005. 2 x 560 Mb/s
1995 Japan Domestic ? KDDI ? System 174 km. 5 Gb/s
1995 Malaysia Domestic: Mersing - Kuching - Miri - Labuan - Bintulu - Kota Kinabalu ASN 84 + 259 km. TM ? System 2342 km.  
1995 T-V-H:Vang Tau, Vietnam - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong Fujitsu ? Flexservice III System 3367 kms including entry below 1120 Mb/s. 2 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1995 T-V-H: Vang Tau, Vietnam - Sri Racha, Thailand Fujitsu ? Cable Venture See above 1120 Mb/s. 2 x 560 Mb/s fibre pairs
1995 Indonesia Domestic: Java - Bali ASN 55 + 3 km. PT Telkom ? System 55 km. 6 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995-6 TAT 12/13: Rhode Island, USA - Porthcurno, England - Penmarc'h, France - Shirley, New York ASN 4160 km TAT 12 - 2173 km TAT 13 AT&T - BT - France Telecom Vercors - Nexus - Sovereign System 6321 km. TAT 12 Vercors laid 385 km of which 298 km was buried. TAT 13 Vercors laid 2183 km of which 128 km was buried 3 x 5 Gb/s
1995 ARIANE 2: Marseille, France - Chania, Greece ASN AT&T - Belgacom - Cyprus Telecommunications Authority - France Telecom - OTE - Verizon Vercors System 2312 km. 562 km was buried 8 x 140 Mb/s
1995 La Seyne sur Mer, France - Ajaccio, Corsica ASN France Telecom Raymond Croze System 312 km. 4 x 155 Mb/s
1995 Corsica - Sardinia ASN France Telecom ? System 160 km.  
1995 BASS STRAIT 1: Sandy Point, VA, Australia - Boat Harbour, Tasmania ASN Telstra   System 241 km. Initial 622 Mb/s. Maximum 2.5 Gb/s
1995 ECFS: Eastern Caribbean Fibre System: Tortola, British Virgin Islands - Anguilla - St. Martin - Basseterre, St. Kitts - Dickenson Bay, Antigua - Montserrat - Baliff, Guadeloupe - Canefield, Dominica - Martinique - St. Lucia - Bridgetown, Barbados - Kingstown, St. Vincent - Port Salines, Grenada - Trinidad ASN 1714 km. C&W - BET - TSTT - France Telecom - AT&T Mercury System 1729 km. MV Bahama Sky laid the shore ends at Tortola, Guadelope, St Lucia and Trinidad. 2.5 Gb/s. Upgraded by Xtera to 100 Gb/s in 2013.
1995 CANUS 1: Pennant Point, Nova Scotia, Canada - Manasquan, New Jersey, USA Tyco Telecommunications Teleglobe - Optel - Tata Communications ? System 1360 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1995 PACRIM WEST: Tumon Bay, Guam - Sydney, Australia ASN7080 km. AT&T Cable Venture System 7062 km. Cable loaded at Port Botany. WFS March 2005 560 Mb/s
1995 UNISUR: Brazil - Uruguay - Argentina ? Embratel - Telecom Argentina ? System  
1995 BCS East: Sventoji, Lithuania - Liepaja, Latvia ? TeliaSonera ? System 98 km. 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1995 KATTEGAT-1: Jutland, Denmark - Gothenburg, Sweden ? TDC ? System 95 km 20 Gb/s
1995 UGARIT: Pentashkinos, Cyprus - Tartus, Syria Tyco Telecommunications CYTA ? System 239 kms 622 Mb/s
1995 Malaysia Domestic. Southern Link: Langkawi - Kuala Perlis: Bayan Lepos - Pulau Jerejak - Seberang Jaya Fujitsu TM ? System 2300 km. 10 Gb/s. 2 x 5 Gb/s fibre pairs
1996 BUGIO: Sesimbra - Carcavelos, Portugal ASN Marconi Vercors System 73 km unrepeatered. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 12 x 2.5 Gb/s)
1996 ADRIA 1: Croatia - Albania - Greece ASN OTE - DTAG ? System 468 km.  
1996 ROMSAR 2: Civitavecchia, Italy - Sassari, Sardinia ? Telecom Italia ? System 380 km. 6 x 565 Mb/s
1996 TAGIDE 2: France - Portugal ASN France Telecom - Marconi Vercors System 1586 km. Later integrated into SEA ME WE 3  
1996 Novorossiysk - Sochi, Russia ASN Rosstelcom Vercors System 145 km.  
1996 KAFOS: Turkey - Rumania - Bulgaria ASN ? Vercors System 284 + 44 + 196 km.  
1996 JASAURUS: Australia - Indonesia Fujitsu ? Cable Innovator System 2800 km 10 Gb/s. 2 x 5 Gb/s fibre pairs
1996 Malaysia Domestic. Northern Link: Mersing - Kuantan - Kota Kinabalu Fujitsu TM ? System 1799 km. 10 Gb/s. 2 x 5 Gb/s fibre pairs
1996 Indonesian Domestic: Ancol - Surabaya ASN 730 km. Indosat   System 713 km. 5 Gb/s
1996 Thailand Domestic ? JSTC ? 616 km.  
1996 TPC 5: San Luis Obispo, USA - Keawaula, Hawaii - Tumon Bay, Guam - Myazaki, Japan: Ninomiya, Japan - Bandon, USA. Cables are linked at each end Ocean Cable Co Segments T2, I, J - Hitachi Cable Ltd 6700 km. - Fujitsu AT&T - KDDI - Entel - Chungwa Telecom - PLDT - MCI - Sprint - Globe Telecom - Telefonica - Teleglobe - Telstra - Belgacom - BT - MFS Worldcom - Singtel - Turk Telecom Cable Innovator System 24953 km 10 Gb/s. 2 x 5 Gb/s fibre pairs
1996 Palau Inter Island System ? ? ? ?  
1996 BARSAV: Cabrera de Mar, Spain - Savona, Italy ASN Telefonica - Telecom Italia ? System 760 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1996 DK-S 18: Helsingor, Denmark - Helsingborg, Sweden ? FCI/Tele8 - Telenordia - TDC - Telenor ? System 5 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1996 ITUR: Palermo, Sicily - Istanbul, Turkey - Odessa, Ukraine -Novorossijsk, Russia Pirelli - AT&T Telecom Italia - Turk Telekom - Rostelecom - Ukrtec Vercors - Dock Express 20 System 1497 km of which 170 km was buried. 1 x 565 Mb/s
1997 ALETAR: Alexandria, Egypt - Tartus, Syria ASN Telecom Egypt (46.875%) - Syrian Telecom (46.87%) Lebanese Ministry of Telecommunications (6.25%) Vercors System 787 km. 5 Gb/s
1997 BERYTAR: Tartus, Syria - Beirut, Lebanon ASN Arento - Lebanon Telecoms - Syrian Telecoms Vercors System 241 km. 5 Gb/s
1997 ANTILLAS 1: Santo Domingo - Punta Cana, Dominican R - Miramar - Isla Verde, Puerto Rico ? AT&T ? System 650 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1997 Rio - Fortaleza: Brazil Domestic ? Embratel ? System 1694 + 861 km. 5 Gb/s
1997 BAHAMAS 2: Vero Beach, USA - Nassau, Eight Mile Rock, Bahamas ? AT&T - Batelco - Verizon - Telefonica - Teleglobe - MCI - Sprint - TresCom ? System 470 km. Route survey carried out by C&C Technologies 2.5 Gb/s
1997 BUS 1: St David's, Bermuda - Tuckerton, USA ? Tycom - Tele Bermuda ? System 1352 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1997 C-1: St Thomas - St Croix, US Virgin Islands ? AT&T ? System 111 km. 24 x 2.5 Gb/s
1997 Hawaii Island Fibre Network Alcatel - AT&T GST - AT&T Coastal Connector System 529 km. 2.5 Gb/s - 622 Mb/s
1997 FLAG (FEA): Porthcurno, England - Estepona, Spain - Palermo, Sicily Alexandia, Port Said, Suez, Egypt - Aqaba, Jordan - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - Fujairah, UAE - Mumbai, India - Penang, Malaysia - Satun - Songkhla, Ban Pak Para, Thailand - South Lantau, Hong Kong - Nanhui, China - Koeje, Korea - Miura, Ninomiya, Japan ASN 22000 km. - Ocean Cable Co: Hong Kong - China - Korea - Japan: India - UAE sections. Reliance Globalcom Flexservice III - Cable Innovator System 27500 km 2 x 5 Gb/s. Upgraded to 100 Gb/s per wavelength by Ciena in 2012.
  FLAG: SEGMENT E: Alexandria - Port Said, Egypt SEGMENT X1: Alexandria - Port Said - Suez, Egypt SEGMENT F1: Suez - BU7 SEGMENT F2: BU7 - BU2 SEGMENT F3: BU7 - Aqaba, Jordan SEGMENT F4: BU2 - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia SEGMENT G: BU2 - BU3 SEGMENT H: BU3 - Fujairah SEGMENT J: BU3 - Mumbai, India SEGMENT K : Mumbai - BU4     Raymond Croze Raymond Croze laid Segment F3 BU7 to Aqaba, Jordan 2 x 5 Gb/s
1997 APCN: Pusan, Korea - Miyazaki, Japan - Toucheng, Taiwan - Lantau, Hong Kong - Batangas, Philippines: Petchaburi, Thailand - Mersing, Malaysia - Changi, Singapore - Jakarta, Indonesia. The two cables are linked by a branching unit off Mersing ASN 5234 km - Ocean Cable Co Segments B1-4, B17. Tyco Telecommunications - Fujitsu Indosat - Telstra - Optus - CAT Telecom, Thailand - Chunwa Telecom International - KDDI - KT Corporation - PLDT, Philippines - Reach NHK - Singtel - TM Global Sentinel - Cable Innovator - Cable Venture - Ocean Link System 12083 km: Installed by Cable & Wireless Marine Ltd. Global Sentinel laid the Taiwan - Malaysia section. Burial work carried out using Sea Plow 7. Ocean Link laid Segments B1-4, B17 10 Gb/s. 2 x 5 Gb/s fibre pairs
1997 JASURAUS: Ancol, Indonesia - Port Hedland, Australia ASN 2809 km. Optus - Telstra ? System 2795 km. 5 Gb/s
1997 GEMINI NORTH: - Oxwich Bay, Wales - Charlestown, Rhode Island, USA ASN 12115 km Gemini SCSL Cable Venture - Cable Innovator - Agile System 12600 km. Landing points at either end are linked by landline or cable. WFS Jan 2005. 60 + 55 Gb/s SDH
1997 GEMINI SOUTH: Porthcurno, England - Manasquan, New Jersey, USA ASN 12115 km Gemini SCSL Cable Venture - Cable Innovator - Agile System 12600 km. Landing points at either end are linked by landline or cable. WFS Jan 2005. See HUGO and BUS-2 (2006) 60 + 55 Gb/s SDH
1997 MTC: Guam - Rota - Tinian - Saipan, Marianas Islands ASN Portland, Oregon MTC MV Kendrick System 240 km. 6 x 622 Mb/s
1997 Korea Domestic: Cheju- Koheung ? KT ? System 154 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1997 UK - Holland 14 ? C&W - BT - KPN ? System 206 nm.  
1997 ULYSSES: England - France - Holland ASN BT - France Telecom - KPN Fresnel System 250 km.  
1997 Otranto, Italy - Corfu, Greece ? Telecom Italia - OTE ? System 163 km. 3 x 565 Mb/s
1997 BALTICA: Segment 1: Kolobrzeg, Poland - Dueodde, Bornholm ? Polish Telecom - TDC - TeliaSonera ? System 105 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1997 BALTICA: Segment 2: Dueodde, Bornholm - Ystad, Sweden ? Telia - Tele Danmark ? System 102 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1997 BALTICA: Segment 3: Dueodde, Bornholm - Gedser, - Denmark ? Telia - Tele Danmark ? System 230 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1997 BCS East-West: Sandviken, Sweden - Sventoji, Lithuania - Liepaja, Latvia Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 218 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s + 1 x 10 Gb/s
1997 CJFS: Half Moon Bay, Cayman Islands - Montego Bay, Jamaica ASN C&W - Jatel ? System 870 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1997 KAFOS: Istanbul, Turkey - Varna, Bulgaria - Mangalia, Rumania ASN ? Vercors System 284 + 44 + 196 km. 2 x 622 Gb/s
1998 DANICA South: Bjãrred, Sweden - Copenhagen, Denmark Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 20 km 4 x 2.5 Gb/s. Upgraded to 40 Gb/s in 2013 by Ciena
1998 DANICA North: Barseback, Sweden - Tuborg, Denmark Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 25 km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s. Upgraded to 40 Gb/s in 2013 by Ciena
1998 BCS NORTH Phase 1: SEGMENT 1: Mariehamn, Finland - Stavsnäs, Sweden Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 147 km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 BCS NORTH Phase 1: SEGMENT 2: Mariehamn - Haradshlom, Finland Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 144 km 4 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 BCS NORTH Phase 1: SEGMENT 3: Haradsholm - Hangö, Finland Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 80 km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 BCS NORTH Phase 1: SEGMENT 4:Hangö - Helsingfors, Katko, Finland - Logi, Russia Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 142 km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 Palermo - Rome: Rome - Sardinia ? Telecom Italia ? System 445, 300 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 Bari, Italy - Durres, Albania ? Telecom Italia ? System 240 km. 1 fibre pair 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 Anacapri - Ischia: Mazara - Pantellaria: Milazzo - Vulcano ? Telecom Italia ? System 34, 108, 37 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 JIH (Japan Information Highway): Okinawa - Miyazaki - Kochi - Shima - Toyohashi - Ninomiya - Chikura - Ibaraki - Sendai - Ishikari - Akita - Niigata - Naoetsu - Matsutou - Kumihama - Hamada - Fukuoka - Miyazaki Ocean Cable Co - Hitachi Cable Ltd KDDI Cable Innovator - Nexus - Pacific Link - Oceanic Link System 10000 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1998 FOG: Dubai, UAE - Doha, Qatar - Manama, Bahrain - Kuwait City, Kuwait Fujitsu Bahrain Telephone Co - Kuwait Ministry of Communications - Qatar Telecommunications Co - UAE Telecommunications Co ? System 1300 km. 20 Gb/s. 5 Gb/s fibre pairs
1998 SB-UP-BJM: Indonesia Domestic: Surabaya, Java - Ujung Pandang, Celebes Islands - Banjarmasin, Borneo - Surabaya, Java ? PT Telkom ? System 1927 km.  
1998 AZORES RING: S. Miguel - Terceira - Graciosa - S Jorge - Faial - Pico - S. Maria - S. Miguel Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke Marconi Teneo System 1100 km unrepeatered. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 6 x 2.5 Gb/s)
1998 SAGRES: Sesimbra - Lagos, Portugal ASN 320 km. Marconi Teneo System 320 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 6 x 2.5 Gb/s)
1998 Venezuela Domestic Festoon: ASN 1194 km CANTV ? System 193 + 204 + 73 + 125 + 121 + 158 + 76 110 + 77 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1998 Corfu, Greece - Bar, Montenegro ? OTE - PTT Montenegro   System 350 km. 3 fibre pairs 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1998 Aldeburgh, England - Domberg, Netherlands ? BT ? System 148 km 10 Gb/s
1999 Sochi - Poti, Georgia ASN Great Northern Telegraph Co Raymond Croze System 270 km.  
1999 LFON: Libyan Fibre Optic Network ASN GPTC ? System 80 + 54 + 146 + 104 + 198 + 236 + 125 + 213 + 138 + 186 + 161 km.  
1999 CIRCE North: Lowestoft, England - Zandvoort, Holland ASN Viatel ? System 203 km. 48 fibre pairs 10 Gb/s
1999 CIRCE South: Pevensey Bay, England - Cayeux sur Mer, France ASN Viatel ? System 115 km. 48 fibre pairs 10 Gb/s
1999 Concerto 1: Sizewell, England - Zandvoort, Holland - Zeebrugge, Belgium - Thorpeness, England ? Interoute/Flute Ltd ? System 550 km. 96 fibre pairs 2.5 Gb/s
1999 Scarborough, England - Norden, Germany 6 ASN BT - DTAG - C&W ? System 560 km. 8 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 England - Belgium ASN Global Crossing ? System 130 km.  
1999 Marsala - Favignana - Marittimo       System 16 + 25 km. 3 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 STORE BÃLT: Korsõr, Denmark - Nyborg, Denmark Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 30 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 LEV: Mazara, Italy - Yeroskipos, Cyprus - Tel Aviv, Israel ASN Telecom Italia Sparkle - KAMA - Telrad - Aurec - Globescom ? System 2620 km. 3 fibre pairs 2.5 Gb/s x 8 wavelengths per fibre pair
1999 NDTN: Philippines Domestic ? ? ? System 1400 km. 2.5 Gb/s
1999 DFON: Philippines Domestic ? ? ? System 2506 km. 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 Indonesia Domestic System: Surabaya - Banjarmasin - Ujung Pandang Ocean Cable Co ? ? System 1 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 TRANSCAN 3: Lanzarote - Gran Canaria ASN 200 km. Telefonica ? System 210 km. 3 x 622 Mb/s
1999 ALASKA UNITED EAST: Harbour Pointe, USA - Juneau - Whittier - Valdez, Alaska NEC GCI Global Sentinel System 1745 nm of submarine cable and 294 nm of landline. Initial capacity 4 x 2.5 Gb/s. Maximum capacity 110 G/bs
1999 NORTHSTAR: Nedonna Beach, Oregon - Juneau - Valdez - Whittier, Alaska ASN 3360 km WCI Cable Maersk Fighter - Fu Lai System 3352 km including land lines 6 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 10 Gb/s)
1999 Alonso de Ojeda: Willemstad, Curacao - Oranjestad, Aruba ASN 120 km. Antelecom ? System 128 km. 6 x 2.5 Gb/s. Upgradable to 100 Gb/s
1999 Americo Vespucci: Willemstad, Curacao - Bonaire ASN 85 km. Antelecom ? System 84 km. 6 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 PAN-AM: Magens Bay, US Virgin Islands - Butlers Bay, St Croix - Baby Beach, Aruba - Punto Fijo, Venezuela - Barranquilla, Colombia - Battery Pratt, Panama: Panama City, Panama - Lurin, Peru - Arica, Chile ASN 2800 km. AT&T - C&W - Antal, El Salvador - Cable Andino - CANTV, Venezuela - CNT - Embratel, Brazil - Telecom Colombia - Telmex - Setar Cable Innovator System 2857 + 4410 km. Route survey carried out by C&C Technologies 2.5 Gb/s
1999 Rio - Sao Paulo: Brazil Domestic ? Embratel ? System 453 km. 20 Gb/s
1999 Tenerife - Gran Canaria ? Telefonica ? System 110 km.  
1999 G-P: Tanguisson Point, Guam - Batangas, Philippines Hitachi Cable Ltd ? ? System 3600 km Initial 21 x 2.5 Gb/s. Maximum 41 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 SEA ME WE 3: (Countries in alphabetical order) Australia, Belgium, Brunei, PR China, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Morocco, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Vietnam. ASN 38000 km - AT&T SSI - Pirelli - KDD-SCS - TYCO BT - DTAG - Tele Danmark Agile - Cable Installer - Maersk Defender - Maersk Fighter - Fresnel - Fu Lai - Nexus - Leon Thevinin - Vercors - Raymond Croze System 40000 km.  
1999 SEA ME WE 3: Segment S1: Kojei, Korea - Okinawa - Nanhui, China - Toucheng - Fangshan, Taiwan - Shantou, China - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong Fujitsu Segment S1 4600 km See above Vercors System 4600 km. Vercors laid 2500 km of which 320 km was buried 40 Gb/s. 2.5 Gb/s x 8wl x 2 fibre pairs. China - Hong Kong section upgraded in 2003 to 55 Gb/s. 2.5 Gb/s x 7wl x 2 fibre pairs and 10 Gb/s x 1wl x 2 fibre pairs.
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S2: Shantou, China - Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong - Taipa, Macau - Batangas, Philippines - Tungku, Brunei - Danang, Vietnam - Mersing, Malaysia - Tuas, Singapore Alcatel See above Vercors System 6125 km. Vercors laid 2130 km of China - Singapore section of which 227 km was buried 40 Gb/s. 2.5 Gb/s x 8wl x 2 fibre pairs. China - Hong Kong section upgraded in 2003 to 55 Gb/s. 2.5 Gb/s x 7wl x 2 fibre pairs and 10 Gb/s x 1wl x 2 fibre pairs.
1999 SEA ME WE 3:SEGMENT S3: Tuas, Singapore - Ancol, Indonesia - Perth Western Australia Fujitsu See above Fresnel - Vercors System 4757 km. Fresnel laid Singapore - Jakarta section 1300 km of which 1000 km was buried. Vercors laid Australia - Jakarta 3400 km of which 55 km was buried 40 Gb/s. 2.5 Gb/s x 8wl x 2 fibre pairs
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S4 Tuas, Singapore - Medan, Indonesia - Penang, Malaysia - Satun, Thailand - Pyapon, Myanamar - Mt Lavinia, Sri Lanka - Cochin - Mumbai, India KDD SCS TM - CAT - VSNL Vercors System 5248 km. Vercors laid all of this section, 532 km buried 8 x 2.5 Gb/s
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S5 Mumbai, India - Karachi, Pakistan - Muscat - Oman - Fujairah - Djibouti KDD SCS VSNL - Etisalat - Vercors System 2293 km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 8 x 2.5 Gb/s).
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S6 Djibouti - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - Suez, Egypt TYCO SSI STID - Telcom Egypt Fresnel - Raymond Croze System 4200 km. Fresnel laid 2668 km and Raymond Croze 1450 km. 168 km buried. 10 Gb/s. 5 Gb/s x 1wl x 2 fibre pairs. Saudi Arabia - Egypt section upgraded in 2003 to 20 Gb/s. 5 Gb/s x 1wl x 2 fibre pairs and 10 Gb/s x 1wl x 1 fibre pair
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S7 Suez - Alexandria, Egypt See above Telecom Egypt Land lines System ? km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 8 x 2.5 Gb/s).
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S8 Alexandria, Egypt - Marmaris, Turkey - Yeroskipos, Cyprus - Chaina, Greece - Mazara, Italy - Tetuan, Morocco - Sesimbra, Portugal Alcatel Telecom Italia - OTE - Turk Telecom - Marconi - Telecom Egypt -IAM Fresnel System 5300 km Fresnel laid 3191 km. 331 km buried. 2 x 10 Gb/s
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT S9 Penmarc'h, France - Sesimbra, Portugal See above France Telecom - Marconi See above System 1600 km. 2 x 20 Gb/s
1999 SEA ME WE 3: SEGMENT 10 Penmarc'h, France - Goonhilly, England - Ostende, Belgium - Norden, Germany See above BT - DTAG - Tele Danmark See above System 1258 km. 4 x 2.5 Gb/s (Upgradeable to 8 x 2.5 Gb/s).
1999 TAMPNETT 1: Karstø, Norway to OSP Draupner - Sleipner Ericsson Statoil ? System 250 km. 24 fibre pairs. OSP = Offshore Platform (Gas or Oil Rig)  
? TAMPNETT 2: Kollsnes, Norway to OSP Troll - Kvitebjørn - Gulfaks - Snorre : Via BU to Oseberg - Heimdal - Grane - Sleipner ? Statoil ? OSP = Offshore Platform (Gas or Oil Rig)  
1999 NORTH SEA COM: Lowestoft, England to OSP Murdoch - Valhall - Ekofisk - Ula - Draupner Alcatel, Norway Originally owned by Enitel and the TeliaSonera   System 800 km. 12 fibre pairs. OSP = Offshore Platform (Gas or Oil Rig)  
1999 ESAT 1: Whitesands Bay, England - Kilmore Quay, Ireland Pirelli 261 km Esat Telecom. Company bought by BT in 2000 and renamed BT Ireland Communications Ltd Wave Sentinel System 259 km. MV Seaworker laid the shore ends 80 Gb/s
1999 ESAT 2: Ainsdale Sands, England - Dublin, Ireland Tyco 247 km As above Sovereign System 240 km. Sovereign laid the shore ends 80 Gb/s
1999 CHINA - USA NETWORK: Main cables (1) Chongming, China - Bandon, Oregon (2) San Luis Obispo, California - Fangshan, Taiwan - Shantou, China. These cables were linked at either end. Branching units provided links to (1) Pusan, Korea; Chikura, Okinawa, Japan (2), Tanguisson, Guam (2) ASN - Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu AT&T - KDD - NTT - MCI - Sprint - KDDI - SBC - China Telecom - NTT - Korea Telecom - Hong Kong Telecom - Singtel Flexservice III - Kuroshio Maru - Cable Innovator System 30500 km. Kuroshio Maru laid 744 km. Cable Innovator loaded 880 km of armoured cable in Japan and laid and ploughed this from China. 80 Gb/s. 2.5 Gb/s x 8 wl x 4 fibre pairs
1999 AC-1 (Atlantic Crossing 1): Brookhaven, USA - Whitesands Bay, England - Beverwijk, Holland - Westerland, Germany - Brookhaven, USA Tyco SSI Level 3 Communications ? System 14000 km. USA - UK leg, laying completed May 1998. The USA - Germany - Holland - UK leg, laying completed November 1998. Initial capacity 4 x 10 Gb/s x 4 fibre pairs. Upgraded to 4 x 20Gb/s x 4 fibre pairs by Xtera in 2010
2000 AC-2: Widemouth Bay, England - Bellport, USA ? Level 3 Communications ? System 6157 km. Initial 320 Gb/s. Upgraded to 640 Gb/s by Infinera in 2010
2000 PACIFIC CROSSING 1 SOUTH: Shima, Japan - Grover Beach, USA. North & South cables are linked at each end Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu Global Crossing. From 2009 owned by NTT Cable Innovator 2000 km. System 21000 km. including entry below. Route survey carried out by C&C Technologies 640 Gb/s. 10 Gb/s x 16 wl x 4 fibre pairs
2000 PACIFIC CROSSING 1 NORTH: Harbour Pointe, USA - Ajigaura, Japan Ocean Cable Co - Fujitsu Global Crossing. From 2009 owned by NTT     640 Gb/s. 10 Gb/s x 16 wl x 4 fibre pairs
2000 SAC: Fort Amadour, Panama - Lurin, Peru - Valparaiso, Chile: Las Toninas, Argentina - Santos - Rio de Janeiro - Fortaleza, Brazil - St Croix, US Virgin Islands - Puerto Viejo, Venezuela ASN 18000 km Global Crossing ? System 20000 kms 1.2 Tb/s. Upgraded in 2010 to 10 Gb/s per wavelength and the to 40 Gb/s in 2011 by Infinera
2000 AMERICAS 2: Hollywood, USA - Miramar, Puerto Rico - St Croix, US Virgin Islands - Le Lamentin, Martinique - - Cayenne, Fortaleza, Brazil: Le Lamentin - Chaguaramas, Trinidad - Camuri, Venezuela - Willemstad, Curacao via a branching unit. ASN 1519 km - Tyco Telecommunications SSI Antelecom NV - AT&T - Brazil Telecom - CANTV, Venezuela - Embratel, Brazil - France Telecom - GT&T - Sprint - Telecom Italia - Telefonica - Telesur - Telintar - Trescom Int - TSTT - Verizon Cable Installer - Agile - Fresnel System 8300 km. Fresnel laid 2100 km. Installed by Global Marine Systems Ltd. Initial 80 Gb/s. Maximum capacity 210 Gb/s.
2000 MAYA 1: Hollywood, Florida - Cancun, Mexico - Puerto Limon, Costa Rica - Maria Chiquita, Panama - Tolu, Colombia ASN 4500 km. - Tyco Telecommunications MAYA-1 Consotium   System 4400 km. Route survey carried out by C&C Technologies 8 x 2.5 Gb/s SDH. Upgraded by Alcatel-Lucent Submarine Networks in 2012 to 40 Gb/s per wavelength.
2000 Mazara, Sicily - Tripoli, Libya ? Telecom Italia - Libya P&T ? System 1170 km. 2 fibre pairs 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
2000 SOLAS: Kilmore Quay, Ireland - Port Eynon Beach, Wales ? C&W - Eircom Wave Sentinel System 140 km. 2 x STM-16
2000 SIRIUS: England - N Ireland - Ireland ? NTL ?    
2000 TANGERINE: Broadstairs, England - Ostende, Belgium ? Level 3 ? System 112 km. 240 Gb/s
2000 EDF 2, SEGMENT 1: Havelet Bay, Guernsey - Greve de Lecq, Jersey ? Channel Islands Electricity Grid (CIEG) ? System 37 km. 90 kV 60 MW AC power cable  
2000 EDF 2, SEGMENT 2: Archirondel, Jersey - St. Remy des Landes, France ? Channel Islands Electricity Grid (CIEG) ? System 27 km. 90 kV 80 MW AC power cable  
2000 PEC: Dumpton Gap, England - Bredene, Belgium: Seaford, England - Veules les Roses, France ? Global Crossing ? System 117 km.  
2000 Peel, IOM - Ballyhornan, N Ireland ? BT ? System 59 km. 12 x 40 Gb/s
2000 SCANDINAVIAN RING NORTH: Helsingõr, Denmark - Helsingborg, Sweden Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 5 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
2000 SCANDINAVIAN RING SOUTH: Dragõr, Denmark - Brunkeflostrand, Sweden Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 17 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
2000 FEHRMARN BÃLT: Puttgarden, Germany - Rõdbyhavn, Denmark Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 20 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
2000 PENCAN 6: El Medano - Conil, Spain ? Telefonica ? System 1854 km. 2 x 2.5 Gb/s
2000 BS-FOCS (Black Sea Fibre Optic Cable System): Varna, Bulgaria - Odessa, Ukraine - Novorossijsk Russia ASN 1300 km - Tyco SSI BTC, Bulgaria - CyTA, Cyprus - UKRETELECOM, Ukraine - Westelcom, Russia - OTE, Greece - Armentel, Armenia. Later joined by Deutsch Telekom - AT&T, USA - KDD, Japan - CT, Croatia Maersk Fighter System 1300 km.  
2000 BCS NORTH Phase 2: Nauvo - Helsinki - Kotka, Finland - Sosnovy, Russia Ericsson Cables TeliaSonera Pleijel System 550 km.  
2000 ATLANTIS 2: Las Toninas, Argentina - Rio da Janeiro - Fortaleza, Brazil - Dakar, Senegal - Praia, Cape Verde Islands - El Medano, Gran Canaria - Funchal, Madeira - Conil, Spain - Lisbon, Portugal ASN 8500 km. - Pirelli - Fujitsu Marconi - Telefonica - Embratel - Telecom Argentina - Cape Verde Telecom - Telefonica de Argentina - Sonatel - Deutsche Telekom AG - Embratel, Brazil - France Telecom - Telecom Italia - Telintar - Verizon Raymond Croze - Fresnel - Vercors - Teneo - Teliri - Maersk Defender System 13000 km. Raymond Croze laid 880 km. Fresnel laid 285 km. 10 Gb/s x 2 wavelengths x 2 fibre pairs. Upgradeable to 10 Gb/s x 8 wavelengths x 2 fibre pairs.
2000 GLOBENET: Tuckerton, USA - Bermuda - Fortaleza - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Tuckerton - Boca Raton - Punta Gorda, Venezuela - Fortaleza, Brazil ASN 22500 km. GlobeNet ? System 22500 kms Initial 40 Gb/s. Upgraded to 560 Gb/s. Maximum capacity 1.28 Tb/s
2000 MAC: Brookhaven, Hollywood, USA - Bermuda - St Croix, US Virgin Islands ASN 6000 km - Global Crosssing Fresnel. Fresnel laid 3147 km. 171 km buried System 7500 km. 2 fibre pairs. Upgraded in 2010 by Infinera to 10 Gb/s per wavelength, then in 2012 to 40 Gb/s per wavelength 1.28 Tb/s
2000 PAC 1: Grover Beach, California - Tijuana - Mazatlan, Mexico - Amadour, Panama - Puerto Viejo, Venezuela - St Croix, US Virgin Islands ? Global Crossing Agile System 9500 km. 2 x 10 Gb/s
2000 SOUTHERN CROSS: Brookvale, Australia - Suva, Fiji - Kahe Point, Oahu - Hillsboro, USA: Alexandria, Australia - Whennapaui, New Zealand: Takapuna, New Zealand - Spencer Beach, Hawaii - Morro Bay, USA ASN All of the cable and some repeaters. - Fujitsu manufactured the remaining repeaters SCCL - Fintel - TNZ Cable Innovator laid 13761 km - Nexus laid 3306 km - Vercors laid 10007 km. Fresnel laid 800 km Total system including land based cables 30500 km. Submarine cable 28900 km. Australia, New Zealand and USA landing sites are linked by land line. Hawaii landings by submarine cable. Section G2 379 km buried. 640 Gb/s. 10 Gb/s x 16 wl x 4 fibre pairs. Upgraded by Ciena in 2012 and 2013 to 40 Gb/s and then 100 Gb/s per wavelength respectively.
2000 SOUTHERN CROSS: SEGMENT A: Alexandria, Australia - Whenuapai, New Zealand SEGMENT B: Whenuapai - Takapuna, New Zealand SEGMENT C: Takapuna - Spencer Beach, Hawaii SEGMENT D: Spencer Beach - Morro Bay, California SEGMENT E: Morro Bay - Hillsboro, Oregon SEGMENT F1: Nedonna Beach, Oregon - Kahe Point, Oahu SEGMENT: F2 Hillsboro - Nedonna Beach SEGMENT G1: Kahe Point - Suva, Fiji SEGMENT G2: Suva - Brrokvale, Australia SEGMENT H: Brookvale - Alexandria, Australia See above See above See above Segments B, E, F2 and H are land based networks. Divided into 3 SDH rings:- North- South Ring - Segments A, B, C, D, E, F1, F2, G1, G2, H: North Ring - Segments D, E, F1, F2, I: South Ring - Segments A, B, C, I, G1, G2, H.
2000 JAPAN - US CABLE: Morro Bay, California - Makaha, Hawaii - Shima, Japan: Point Arena, California - Maruyama - Kitaibaraki, Japan. Cables are linked at each end ASN 21000 km. - Ocean Cable Co AT&T - KDDI - NTTWN Subaru - Cable Innovator System 22000 km. 4 fibre pairs. Subaru laid 920 km. Cable Innovator laid 5000 km during which the ship encountered 7 hurricanes and weeks of storms. The vessel left Japan on 3 Jan and returned on 7 April 4 x 160 Gb/s. Upgraded in 2008 by Fujitsu to 4 x 320 Gb/s. Upgraded by Ciena in 2012 to 100 Gb/s per wavelength
2000 PANGEA NORTH: Redcar, England - Måde, Fanø, Denmark ASN Pangea Pleijel System 511 km. including entry below. Installed by Nexans. Route survey carried out by Fugro  
2000 PANGEA SOUTH: Lowestoft, England - Beverwijk, Holland ASN Pangea Pleijel    
2000 UK-Ireland 1:- Whitesands Bay, England - Ballygrangans, Ireland
UK-Ireland 2:- Ballinesker, Ireland - Crooklets, England
? Global Crossing ? System 495 km. 2 x 40 Gb/s
2000 ADRIA-1: Dubrovnik, Croatia - Durres, Albania - Corfu, Greece Alcatel Submarine Networks Deutsche Telekom AG - OTE ? System 440 km 622 Mb/s
2000 Anan - Kihoku DC Trunk Line, Japan Pirelli ? Giulio Verne Power cable  
2000 Port Skillion, Douglas, IOM - Bispham, Lancashire, England BICC - Pirelli MEA (Manx Electricity Authority) Giulio Verne - Northern Explorer System 105 km power cable weighing 5000 tonnes. Northern Explorer, towed by a tug, deployed the plough for cable burial  
2000 COLUMBUS 3: Hollywood, Florida - Ponta Delgada, Azores - Lisbon, Portugal - Conil, Spain - Sicily, Italy ASN - TYCO - Pirelli Telecom Italia - Telefonica - Marconi - AT&T ? System 9900 km. 2 x 10 Gb/s

Last revised: 28 May, 2014

Return to Atlantic Cable main page

Search all pages on the Atlantic Cable site:

Research Material Needed

The Atlantic Cable website is non-commercial, and its mission is to make available on line as much information as possible.

You can help - if you have cable material, old or new, please contact me. Cable samples, instruments, documents, brochures, souvenir books, photographs, family stories, all are valuable to researchers and historians.

If you have any cable-related items that you could photograph, copy, scan, loan, or sell, please email me: billb@ftldesign.com

—Bill Burns, publisher and webmaster: Atlantic-Cable.com