History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
This page shows Atlantic cables and their connecting systems, extracted from the main Cable Timeline.
The table can be sorted by clicking on a column header. Clicking on the header a second time will reverse the sort sequence.
|Year||Route||Manufacturer||Company or Operator||Cable Ships||Notes||Bandwidth|
|1856||Cape Ray Newfoundland - Cape North:Cape Breton Island||Gutta Percha Co supplied the core: R. S. Kuper, Glass & Co||New York Newfoundland and London Telegraph Co||Propontis||System 85 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor comprising 7 strands No 14 BWG wire, 6 wrapped around 7th then covered with gutta percha. Armouring, main cable 12 No 9 BWG bright iron wires and shore ends 12 No. 4 BWG black iron wires. Laid on 10 July taking 15 hours to complete.|
|1856||Prince Edward Island - New Brunswick||Gutta Percha Co supplied the core: R. S. Kuper, Glass & Co||New York Newfoundland and London Telegraph Co||Propontis||System 12 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor consisting of 7 strands No 22 BWG wire, 6 wrapped around the 7th then covered with gutta percha to No 1 BWG. Armouring, main cable 12 No. 9 BWG bright iron wires, shore ends 12 No 4 BWG black iron wires.|
|1856||Cape Breton Island - Nova Scotia||Gutta Percha Co supplied the core - Glass & Co||?||?||System 1½ nm. CABLE: as Prince Edward Is - New Brunswick cable|
|1857||Valentia, Ireland - Bay Bull Arm, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland See also this article||Gutta Percha Co supplied the core for the 1857 and 1858 expeditions. - Glass Elliot & Co - 1250 nm for 1857 attempt and a further 900 nm for the 1858 attempt. R.S. Newall & Co 1250 nm for 1857 cable.||New York Newfoundland and London Telegraph Co||HMS Agamemnon - USS Niagara - Willing Mind laid Valentia shore end.||HMS Agamemnon loaned by Royal Navy to lay cable manufactured by Glass Elliot & Co. USS Niagara loaned by the US navy to lay cable manufactured by R.S. Newall & Co. Expedition failed. 385 nm of cable laid. Leipsig recovered 39 nm of cable.|
|1858||Valentia, Ireland - Bay Bull Arm, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland See also this article||Glass Elliot & Co 900 nm in addition to that left from the 1857 expedition. Total carried on this expedition 3000 nm. 100 nm was brought back to England; the remainder was used in the earlier attempts which took place in 1858.||Atlantic Telegraph Co||HMS Agamemnon - USS Niagara - Industry recovered 40 nm of cable at Newfoundland.||System 2200 nm. CABLE: 7 strands of copper wire, six wrapped around the seventh, No 22 BWG covered with three coats of gutta percha to No 4 BWG. This was wrapped in jute yarn soaked with a composition consisting of 5/12 Stockholm tar, 5/12 pitch, 1/12 boiled linseed oil and 1/12 common bees wax. Armouring consisted of 18 strands each strand composed of 7 of the best charcoal iron wires, six wrapped around the seventh, each of 22 BWG. The completed cable as it left the machine was dipped in a heated composition consisting of tar, pitch and linseed oil. The cable worked with variable results for three weeks, the last complete message being received on September 1st 1858. Attempts to revive the cable continued, and fragments of messages were received, but the last signs of life were on October 28th 1858. The cable was abandoned less than three months after its inception.|
|1865||Valentia, Ireland - Heart's Content, Newfoundland||W.T. Henley Telegraph Works manufactured the Irish shore end of 27 nm. Telcon manufactured the main cable 2300 nm.||Atlantic Telegraph Co||Great Eastern - Caroline - Medway - Albany - Hawk||System 1896 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor comprising 7 strands No. 18 BWG, 6 wrapped around 7th. Coated with 3 layers of Chattertons Compound and then 3 layers of gutta percha all wrapped in tarred jute. Armouring, main cable 10 No. 13 BWG homogeneous bright iron wires each wire wrapped in 5 strands tanned manilla, shore ends 10 No. 13 BWG plus 12 strands of 3 No. 5 BWG. Caroline laid Valentia shore ends. Cable
lost about 600 nm from Newfoundland.
After the successful laying of the 1866 cable, Great Eastern picked up the end of the 1865 cable and completed the run. See below. The 1865 cable was abandoned in 1877.
|1866||Valentia, Ireland - Heart's Content, Newfoundland||Telcon||Anglo-American Telegraph Co||Great Eastern - William Cory - Albany - Medway||System 1852 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor 7 strands No. 18 BWG, 6 wrapped around 7th, coated with three layers of Chattertons Compound and 3 layers of gutta percha then wrapped in tarred jute. Main cable armoured with 10 No. 13 BWG galvanised iron wires each wrapped in 5 strands of white manilla, shore ends 12 No. 0000 BWG black iron wires, intermediate 12 No. 3 BWG, 2nd intermediate 12 No. 1 BWG, 3rd intermediate 12 No. 0 BWG galvanised iron wires. The whole cable was then wrapped in jute and dipped in Bright and Clarks Composition. (hot pitch, tar and linseed oil). Laying commenced 7 July and was completed on 27 July. The 1866 cable was abandoned in 1872.
After laying this cable, Great Eastern recovered the lost 1865 cable and completed it.
|1866||Carleton Head, Prince Edward Island - Cape Tormantine, New Brunswick , Canada||Telcon||New York Newfoundland and London Telegraph Co||Medway||HMS Terrible acted as escort and assisted Medway during laying of this cable and the entry below. Laying completed 2 October 1866|
|1866||Cape Ray, Newfoundland - Cape North, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia||Telcon||Anglo-American Telegraph Co||Medway||System 91 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor 7 strands of 0.032" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th then covered with 3 layers of Chattertons Compound then 3 layers of gutta percha, then covered with tanned jute. Main cable armouring 10 No. 6 BWG and shore ends 10 No. 2 BWG galvanised iron wires. Laid between 10 and 16 October 1866.|
|1867||Placentia, Newfoundland - St. Pierre||Telcon||New York Newfoundland and London Telegraph Co.||Chiltern||System 112 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor 7 strands 0.034" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th, covered with 3 layers of Chattertons Compound and 3 layers of gutta percha then covered with tanned jute. Main cable armouring 12 No. 9 BWG, shore ends 10 No.00 galvanised iron wires.|
|1867||Placentia, Newfoundland - Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia||Telcon||New York Newfoundland and London Telegraph Co.||Chiltern||System 189 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor 7 strands 0.032" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th. Covered with 3 layers of Chattertons Compound and 3 layers of gutta percha, then wrapped in tanned jute. Main cable armouring 12 No. 9 BWG, shore ends 10 No. 2 galvanised iron wires.|
|1869||Brest, France - St. Pierre||Telcon 2478 nm. - Henley’s Telegraph Works 1086 nm||La Société du Câble Transatlantique Française||Great Eastern - Chiltern - Hawk - William Cory - Scanderia - Chiltern and Scanderia laid the St. Pierre - Duxbury cable commencing on 15 July and completing it on 23 July.||System 2584 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor comprising 7 strands of 0.056" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th, coated with 3 layers of Chattertons Compound and then covered with 3 layers of gutta percha then wrapped in tanned jute. Armouring, all galvanised iron wires, main cable 10 No. 13 BWG, these wrapped in 5 strands tanned manilla. Intermediate 12 No. 4 BWG, Shore ends 12 No. 7 and 12 strands of 3 No. 4½. Cable wrapped in 2 layers hemp dipped in Bright and Clarks Compostion|
|1869||St. Pierre - Duxbury, Massachusetts||See above||See above||See above||System 749 nm.CABLE: 1 copper conductor comprising 7 strands 0.029" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th, coated with 3 layers of Chattertons Compound and 3 layers of gutta percha, then wrapped in tanned jute. Armouring all galvanised iron wire, main cable 10 No. 8 BWG, intermediate 12 No. 4 BWG, shore ends 10 No. 8 BWG plus 12 strands 3 No. 4½ BWG. The whole cable was taken over by Anglo American in 1873.|
|1869||Belgium - USA||The following appeared in the New York Times dated 7 November 1869:
A NEW OCEAN CABLE. The Proposed Belgo-American Line - The Concession signed by the Belgian Minister at Paris. Special dispatch to the New York Times. PARIS, France Saturday Nov 6 1869 - The concession for the proposed cable between the United States and Belgium was signed yesterday in this city by the Belgian Minister. The grantees are W.C. Barney, E.E. Paulding and J.S. Bartlett. The cable is to be laid from Ostend to some point between Maine and Georgia by an American company.
The cable was never laid.
|1872||Hearts Content - Rantem - Island Cove - Placentia, Newfoundland - St Pierre - Sydney, Nova Scotia||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Vanessa||System 111 + 182 nm. CABLE: Placentia - St. Pierre and St. Pierre - Sydney. 1 copper conductor, 7 strands 0.029" wire 6 wrapped around 7th then covered with Chattertons Compound and gutta percha, then wrapped in jute soaked in cutch. Armouring , main cable 12 No. 9 BWG, shore ends 10 No. 2 BWG galvanised iron wires. Cable wrapped in 2 layers of jute dipped in Bright and Clarks Composition. Laying St. Pierre - Sydney commenced 2 August, completed 3 August. Placentia - St. Pierre, laying commenced 4 August, completed 5 August 1872. Because of the poor state of the land line Anglo American laid a cable to Rantem. From there to Island Cove a buried land line, then continued to Sydney via Placentia and St Pierre with the above submarine cable.|
|1873||Valentia, Ireland - Heart's Content, Newfoundland||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Great Eastern - Hibernia - Edinburgh - Robert Lowe||System 1877 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor 7 strands 0.056" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th, covered with Chattertons Compound and gutta percha, then wrapped in tanned jute. Armouring, main cable 10 No. 13 BWG each wire wrapped in 5 strands of tanned manilla,"whipped" then dipped in Bright and Clarks Composition, intermediate 12 No. 6 BWG, 2nd intermediate 15 No. 9 BWG, shore end 12 No. 6 BWG plus 12 strands of 3 No. 5 BWG, 2nd shore end 12 No. 00 BWG galvanised iron wires. Cable wrapped in 2 layers jute dipped in Bright and Clarks Composition. Laying commenced 11 June, completed 15 June 1873. This cable was originally ordered by the French Atlantic Telegraph Company just before its takeover by Anglo American. After completion, because of the shorter route, 1000 nm of cable was left and so additional cable was ordered to enable another cable to be laid, this being done in 1874.|
|1873||Placentia, Newfoundland - Sydney, Cape Breton Island||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Hibernia - Edinburgh - Kangaroo||System 314 nm. CABLE: 1 copper conductor 7 strands 0.029" wire, 6 wrapped around 7th, covered with Chattertons Compound and gutta percha, wrapped in jute dipped in cutch. Armouring, main cable 12 No. 6 BWG shore end 12 No. 6 BWG and 12 strands of 3 of No. 5 BWG, 2nd shore end 12 No. 00 BWG galvanised iron wires. Cable covered in 2 layers of jute dipped in Bright and Clarks Composition. Laying commenced 15 July, completed 21 July 1873|
|1873||Sydney, Cape Breton Island - Placentia, Newfoundland||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Hibernia - Edinburgh - Kangaroo||System 281 nm. CABLE: AS ABOVE except, Laying commenced 23 July, completed 25 July 1873|
|1874||Valentia, Ireland - Heart's Content, Newfoundland||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Great Eastern - Hibernia - Edinburgh||The cable used on this route was originally ordered by the French Atlantic Telegraph Company just before its takeover by Anglo American. After completion of the 1873 cable (see above), because of the shorter route, 1000 nm of cable was left and so additional cable was ordered to enable another cable to be laid, this being done in 1874. The specifications for this cable are thus identical to those of the 1873 cable.|
Rye Beach, USA - Tor Bay, Nova Scotia - Harbour Grace, Newfoundland - Ballinskelligs, Ireland
Laying began in 1874, but the cable was not in service until September 1875
|Siemens Bros||Direct United States Cable Co||Faraday (1) - Ambassador||System 3200 nm. Anglo American gained a majority shareholding in the company, but it continued to operate under its own name even when leased by Western Union. Purchased by the GPO in 1920.
In 1952 Monarch (4) undertook major repair work on this cable. and a note in the Telcon magazine (Issue 21, Autumn 1953) reports that the entire length of this cable was currently being replaced, also by Monarch (4).
The core of the 1525nm of replacement cable was insulated with Telcothene, making it “the first transatlantic cable to be entirely insulated with that plastic material”. As part of this work, the cable was also diverted from Harbour Grace into St. John's.
|1879||Brest, France - St. Pierre||Siemens Bros||La Compagnie Française du Télégraphe de Paris à New York||Faraday (1)||System 2242 nm.|
|1879||St Pierre - Cape Cod, USA||Siemens Bros||La Compagnie Française du Télégraphe de Paris à New York||Faraday (1)||System 827 nm.|
|1879||St Pierre - Cape Breton Island||Siemens Bros||La Compagnie Française du Télégraphe de Paris à New York||Faraday (1)||System 188 nm.|
|1880||Brest, France - Cornwall, England||Siemens Bros||La Compagnie Française du Télégraphe de Paris à New York||Faraday (1)||System 151 nm.|
|1880||North Sydney - St Pierre: St Pierre - Bay Roberts||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Scotia - Seine|
|1880||Valentia, Ireland - Heart's Content, Newfoundland||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Scotia - Seine||A near complete renewal of the 1866 cable only the shore ends were not replaced.|
|1881||Canso, Nova Scotia - Whitesand Bay, Sennen Cove, England||Siemens Bros||American Telegraph & Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 2531 nm. Extended to New York in 1889 by Faraday (1). Leased by Western Union. Diverted into Bay Roberts, Newfoundland in 1913. First submerged telegraph repeater was inserted in the cable in 1950.|
|1882||Canso, Nova Scotia - Whitesand Bay, Sennen Cove, England||Siemens Bros||American Telegraph & Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 2531 nm. Extended to New York in 1889 by Faraday (1). Leased by Western Union. Diverted into Bay Roberts, Newfoundland in 1915.|
|1884||MAIN - 1 & 2: Dover Bay, Nova Scotia - Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare: Waterville, Ireland - Le Havre, France||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 6500 nm. Two cables were laid between Canada and Ireland. One was linked to the UK the other to France. (See 1885 entries). In 1909 CS Mackay Bennett diverted one cable into Cuckold's Cove, near St Johns, Newfoundland, the work was completed on 14 July. In 1910 the second cable was diverted to the same place also by Mackay Bennett.|
|1884||NY - 3: Dover Bay, Nova Scotia - Duxbury, Mass: Dover Bay - Far Rockaway, Long Island||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||Included with the above|
|1884||ROCKPORT: Rockport, USA - Canso, Nova Scotia||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 518 nm.|
|1885||WESTON - 1: Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare, England||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||330 nm|
|1885||HAVRE - 1: Waterville, Ireland - Le Havre, France||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||514 nm|
|1894||MAIN - 3: Dover Bay, Nova Scotia - Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare, England - Le Havre, France||Siemens Bros.||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 2161 nm. Conductor 11 around 1.
In 1926 this cable and the 1905 cable were diverted into Quidi Vidi Harbour by CS John W. Mackay
|1894||Valentia, Ireland - Heart's Content, Newfoundland||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Scotia - Britannia (2)|
|1898||Brest, France - Cape Cod, USA||La Société Générale des Téléphones||La Compagnie Française des Câbles Télégraphiques||François Arago||System 3173 nm.|
|1898||Cape Cod - New York||La Société Générale des Téléphones||La Compagnie Française des Câbles Télégraphiques||François Arago||System 324 nm.|
|1900||Greetsiel - Borkum, Germany - Fayal, Azores||Felten & Guilleaume supplied the conductor and armouring wires. - Telcon made and laid the cable||German Atlantic Telegraph Co||Anglia - Britannia (2)||Diverted into Porthcurno in 1917 by Colonia. Operated by the GPO until 1929 then by Cable & Wireless.|
|1900||Fayal, Azores - New York, USA||Felten & Guilleaume supplied the conductor and armouring wires. - Telcon made and laid the cable||German Atlantic Telegraph Co||Anglia - Britannia (2)||Diverted into Brest in 1917. Operated by the French PTT|
|1900||MAIN - 4B: Nova Scotia - Horta, Azores||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 1698 nm|
|1900||NY - 4: Nova Scotia - New York||India Rubber Gutta Percha & Telegraph Works||Commercial Cable Co||Silvertown||System 890 nm|
|1901||MAIN - 4A: Azores - Waterville, Ireland||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (1)||System 1204 nm|
|1901||WESTON - 2: Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare, England||India Rubber Gutta Percha & Telegraph Works||Commercial Cable Co||Silvertown||System 330 nm|
|1901||Nova Scotia - St Pierre - Bay Roberts||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Scotia - Anglia|
|1903||Greetsiel - Borkum - Azores||Norddeutsche Seekablewerke||German Submarine Telegraph Co
|Stephan - Von Podbielski||Diverted into Brest in 1917 for use by the French PTT.|
|1904||Azores - New York||Norddeutsche Seekablewerke||German Submarine Telegraph Co||Stephan - Von Podbielski||Diverted into Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1917 by Colonia. Operated by the GPO until 1929 then by Cable & Wireless.|
|1905||MAIN - 5: Canso, Nova Scotia - Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare, England||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Colonia - Anglia - Cambria - Mackay Bennett||Colonia laid the Canadian end of the cable, and during the laying ran aground on Fox Island off Nova Scotia. To enable Colonia to be floated off the cable was transferred to the Mackay Bennett. Colonia then sailed to Halifax for repairs. Anglia laid the eastern end. In 1926 this cable and the 1894 cable were diverted into Quidi Vidi Harbour by CS John W. Mackay|
|1905||St. Johns, Newfoundland - Canso, Nova Scotia||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Colonia||System 454 nm.|
|1909||NY - 1: St. John's, Newfoundland - New York||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Colonia||System 1310 nm. Provided a direct link to New York for the 1884 cable diverted in 1909|
|1910||Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare, England||?||Commercial Cable Co||?|
|1910||Bay Roberts, Newfoundland - Sennen Cove, Cornwall, England||Telcon||Anglo American Telegraph Co||Colonia - Telconia||In 1927 Western Union diverted this cable into Le Havre after the GPO refused them a licence to lay a direct link Sennen Cove to Le Havre|
|1912||NY - 2: New York - St Johns, Newfoundland||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Colonia||System 1279 nm.|
|1921||Island Cove, Newfoundland - North Sydney, Cape Breton Island - Canso, Nova Scotia||?||American Telegraph & Cable Co||?||A further link for the 1881-2 cables. The extension to Canso was made in 1922. Western Union leased the cable.|
|1923||Valentia, Ireland - Whitesands Bay, Sennen Cove, England||Telcon||Western Union Telegraph Co||Stephan - T. W. Stuart||T.W. Stuart laid the UK shore ends|
|1923||NY - 5: New York - Canso, Nova Scotia||Siemens Bros||Commercial Cable Co||Faraday (2)||System 975 nm.|
|1923||MAIN - 6B: Canso, Nova Scotia - Horta, Azores||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Colonia||System 1710 nm.|
|1923||MAIN 6A: Horta, Azores - Waterville, Ireland||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Colonia - Stephan - T. W. Stuart||System 1222 nm. T.W. Stuart laid the UK shore ends|
|1923||HAVRE - 2: Waterville - Le Havre, France||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||Stephan - T. W. Stuart||System 512 nm. T.W. Stuart laid the UK shore ends|
|1923||WESTON - 4: Waterville, Ireland - Weston super Mare, England||Telcon||Commercial Cable Co||John W. Mackay||System 312 nm|
|1924||Rockaway Beach, New York - Horta, Azores||Telcon||Western Union Telegraph Co||Colonia, Robert C. Clowry||System 2360 nm. Continuously loaded cable using permalloy. Cable landed at Rockaway Beach 20 September 1924.
Connection extended to Rome via the following two cables.
|1924||Malaga, Spain - Horta, Azores||Telcon||Italcable||Colonia||System 1337 nm. Continuously loaded cable using permalloy|
|1924||Anzio - Malaga: Malaga - Las Palmas||Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke||Italcable||Citta di Milano (2)||System 1005 + 870 nm. Anzio - Malaga continuously loaded cable using permalloy|
|1926||Borkum - Fayal, Azores||Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke||German Atlantic Telegraph Co||Neptun (1)||Continuously loaded cable. Diverted into Cherbourg in 1944 for use by US Forces in Europe.|
|1926||Sennen Cove, Cornwall, England - Bay Roberts, Newfoundland - New York, USA||Telcon||Western Union Telegraph Co||Colonia||System 3410 nm. Continuously loaded cable.|
|1928||Bay Roberts - Horta||Telcon||Western Union Telegraph Co||Colonia||Continuously loaded cable|
|1929||Borkum - Vigo||Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke||German Atlantic Telegraph Co||Norderney|
|1955||TAT 1: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Oban, Scotland||Submarine Cables Ltd 3534 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 350 nm of shore ends - Southern United Telephone Co 80 nm landline. Western Electric supplied the repeaters. Includes entry below||AT&T owned 50%; GPO 41% and COTC 9%||
Clyde puffer Glenaray laid Oban shore ends.
|System 1942 nm with 51 one-way repeaters, 69km spacing.
|48 telephone circuits|
|1956||TAT 1: Oban, Scotland - Clarenville, Newfoundland||See above||GPO - AT&T - COTC||Monarch (4)||System 1942 nm with 51 one-way repeaters, 69km spacing.
|48 telephone circuits|
|1956||TAT 1: Terrenceville, Newfoundland - Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia||Submarine Cables Ltd., 271 nm and 16 repeater housings. Standard Telephones & Cables 16 internal repeater units||GPO - AT&T - COTC||Monarch (4)||
System 328 nm with 16 two-way shallow water repeaters (GPO design). Overland line between Clarenville and Terrenceville
Video file from the CBC Digital Archives of a January 1957 interview with Douglas Bowie of the COTC
|80 telephone circuits|
|1959||TAT 2: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Penmarc'h, France||Submarine Cables Ltd 1900 nm - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 600 nm - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke 1000 nm - Cables de Lyon 1000 nm.||AT&T - French PTT - German PTT||
Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer - John W. Mackay - Ampere (3)
Ocean Layer caught fire while laying its section of the cable and became a total loss.
|System 2250, 2250 nm. As TAT 1 two cables were laid, each with 57 repeaters at 69km spacing.
|48 telephone circuits|
|1959||TAT 2: Clarenville, Newfoundland - Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia No. 2||Submarine Cables Ltd., cable and repeater housings. Repeater electronics by STC||AT&T - French PTT - German PTT||Monarch (4) - Ocean Layer - John W. Mackay - Ampere (3)||System 338 nm with 16 GPO shallow water repeaters. WFS 1982||80 telephone circuits|
The complete system, comprising CANTAT A and B, is referred to as CANTAT 1 on other site pages
|Submarine Cables Ltd all cable plus 90 repeater housings. Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 65 nm of cable laid overland, and 90 repeater internal units||C&W - COTC||Monarch (4)||System 2072 nm. Ariel laid UK shore ends. Albert J. Myer Hampden shore ends. WFS 1986||240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits|
|1961||CANTAT B: Corner Brook, Newfoundland - Grosses Roches, Quebec||Submarine Cables Ltd 400 nm and 20 repeaters||COTC||Alert (4)||
System 400 nm. Hadsund laid shore ends. WFS 1986
Audio file of the inaugural telephone call from the CBC Digital Archives
|240 + 240 kHz. 80 telephone circuits|
|1961||SCOTICE: Gairloch, Scotland - Torshavn, Faroe Islands - Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd.||GPO - Great Northern Telegraph Co - Danish PTT||Alert (4) - John W. Mackay||System 284 + 401 nm.|
|1961||ICECAN: Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - Frederiksdal, Greenland - Hampden, Newfoundland||Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke||Great Northern Telegraph Co - COTC||Neptun (3) - Edouard Suenson||System 829 + 887 nm|
|1963||TAT 3: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Widemouth Bay, England||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd cable. Western Electric repeaters||AT&T - GPO||Alert (4) - Long Lines||System 3518 nm with 182 rigid two-way repeaters at 37km spacing.
|414 + 414 kHz. 128 telephone circuits|
|1965||TAT 4: Tuckerton, New Jersey - St Hilaire de Riez, France||Western Electric 1375 nm.and repeaters - Cables de Lyon 1125 nm. - Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke 1200 nm.||AT&T - French PTT||Long Lines - Marcel Bayard||System 3600 nm., with 186 repeaters at 37km spacing. Marcel Bayard laid the French shore ends.
|384 + 384 kHz. 128 telephone circuits|
|1970||TAT 5: Green Hill, Rhode Island - Conil, Spain||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 1220 nm. - Cables de Lyon 630 nm. - Western Electric 1620 nm., and repeaters||AT&T - CTNE - CPRM - Italcable||Long Lines||System 3461 nm., with 361 repeaters at 18.5km spacing.
|720 x 3kHz channels|
|1970||MAT 1 Spain - Italy||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd||AT&T - CTNE - CPRM - Italcable||John W. Mackay||System 990 nm., with 93 repeaters. Extension to TAT 5||640 x 3 kHz channels|
|1974||CANTAT 2: Beaver Harbour, Canada - Widemouth Bay, England||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton||GPO - COTC||Mercury - Alert (4) Ariel - John Cabot||System 2840 nm with 489 repeaters. Ariel laid UK shore ends John Cabot laid Canadian shore ends. Whilst burying the cable to the SW of Ireland the manned submersible Pisces III became stranded on the sea bed for several days. The crew were recovered safely.
LOADING CABLE All dates 1973 LOAD 8, Shore end John Cabot 15-19 May; LOAD 2, Main lay Mercury 11-23 June; LOAD 7, Shore end John Cabot 25 June - 1 July; LOAD 3, Main lay Mercury 4-17 July; LOAD 4, Main lay Mercury 20 August - 1 September; LOAD 5, Main lay aboard Mercury 1-5 October; LOAD 6, Main lay Mercury 9-21 November. LAYING CABLE All dates 1973 LAY 3, Mercury 18 July - 1 August; LAY 5, Mercury 10 October - 7 November; LAY 6, Mercury 21 November - 12 December. Laying times include sailing to and from port. WFS 1992.
Canadian end was diverted to Sable Island and the cable was recommissioned as SITIFOG 2000. Abandoned after developing a fault.
|1840 x 3kHz channels|
|1976||TAT 6: Green Hill, Rhode Island - St Hilaire de Riez, France||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2400 nm. - Simplex Wire & Cable Co 95 nm. - Cables de Lyon 1200 nm.||Various||Long Lines||System 3600 nm., with 745 repeaters. Vercors laid all shore ends. WFS 1994||12000 + 12000 kHz. 4000 channels|
|1983||TAT 7: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Porthcurno, England||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 2700 nm. 2400 lightweight non armoured and 300 nm armoured cable - Câbles de Lyon 690 nm - Western Electric 677 repeaters and 24 equalisers||AT&T - France Telecom - BT||Alert (4) - Vercors - Long Lines - Monarch (5)||System 3286 nm. 4000 voice circuits. Alert (4) carried out the route survey. Monarch (5) laid the UK shore ends. Vercors laid 110 nm armoured cable with 20 repeaters and one equaliser from previously laid US shore end and 190 nm armoured cable with 36 repeaters and one equaliser over UK shelf. Long Lines laid remaining cable in four sessions. WFS 1994||4000 x 3kHz|
|1988||TAT 8: Tuckerton, New Jersey - Widemouth Bay, England - Penmarc'h, France||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd 870 km - ALCATEL 360 km||AT&T - BT - France Telecom||Vercors - Long Lines - Alert (4)||System 6705 km. Vercors laid French Continental shelf section 360 km of which 254 km was buried. First fibre optic Atlantic cable. In connection with this cable CS Alert carried out plough trial 1 - 11 July 1986. Alert laid the UK shore end and laid and buried the intermediate section of the cable. 40,000 voice circuits. WFS 2002||280 Mb/s|
|1989||PTAT 1: Manasquan, USA - Devonshire, Bermuda - Ballinspittle, Ireland - Brean, England||Standard Telephones & Cables Ltd., Southampton - 4100 nm||C&W - Sprint||Cable Venture - Mercury||System 4060 nm. Cable Protector laid USA shore ends - Forth Explorer UK shore ends - Northern, Bermuda shore ends. LOADING Load 5, Cable Venture 17 - 19 May 1989; Post lay burial of R5, Cable Protector with Cirrus ROV. WFS 2006||420 Mb/s|
|1991||TAT 9: Manahawkin, USA - Pennant Point, Canada - Goonhilly, England - St Hilaire de Riez, France - Conil, Spain||STC 4410 km. - AT&T SSI - Alcatel (Submarcom)||AT&T - BT - France Telecom - Telefonica - Teleglobe||Long Lines
|System 8910 km. Long Lines laid the 4,198 km westerm section from Manahawkin.
Vercors laid 429 km of which 226 km was buried. WFS January 2004
|2 x 560 Mb/s, each 80,000 voice circuits.|
|1992||TAT 10: Greenhill, USA - Norden, Germany - Terschelling - Alkmaar, Holland||AT&T SSI - STC 169 + 155 km.||AT&T - DTAG - KPN||Global Link - Seaspread - Flexservice III||System 7354 km. WFS Jul 2003||560 Mb/s - Germany - Holland 3 x 565 Mb/s|
|1993||TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France||AT&T SSI - STC 5286 km. - ALCATEL||AT&T - C&W - France Telecom||Galatea||System 12 km. UK shore end The whole cable was buried. WFS July 2003||560 Mb/s|
|1993||TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France||See above||AT&T - C&W - France Telecom||Dock Express 20||System 153 km. US shelf. 144 km ploughed.||560 Mb/s|
|1993||TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France||See above||AT&T - C&W - France Telecom||Flexservice III||System 597 km. UK shelf. 194 km ploughed||560 Mb/s|
|1993||TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France||See above||AT&T - C&W - France Telecom||Flexservice III||System 535 km. French shelf. 223 km ploughed.||560 Mb/s|
|1993||TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France||See above||AT&T - C&W - France Telecom||Flexservice III||System 2736 km. Main lay||560 Mb/s|
|1993||TAT 11: Manasquan, New Jersey, USA - Oxwich Bay, Wales - St Hilaire de Riez, France||See above||AT&T - C&W - France Telecom||Mercury||System 3041 km. Main lay||560 Mb/s|
|1994||CANTAT 3: Nova Scotia, Canada - Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - Tjornuvik, Faroes - Redcar, England - Blaabjerg, Denmark - Sylt, Germany||ASN 7500 km.||Teleglobe - Iceland Telecom - BT - Tele Danmark - DTAG||?||System 7104 km.||3 x 2.5 Gb/s|
|1995-6||TAT 12/13: Rhode Island, USA - Porthcurno, England - Penmarc'h, France - Shirley, New York||ASN 4160 km TAT 12 - 2173 km TAT 13||AT&T - BT - France Telecom||Vercors - Nexus - Sovereign||System 6321 km. TAT 12 Vercors laid 385 km of which 298 km was buried. TAT 13 Vercors laid 2183 km of which 128 km was buried||3 x 5 Gb/s|
|1997||FLAG (FEA): Porthcurno, England - Estepona, Spain - Palermo, Sicily Alexandia, Port Said, Suez, Egypt - Aqaba, Jordan - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - Fujairah, UAE - Mumbai, India - Penang, Malaysia - Satun - Songkhla, Ban Pak Para, Thailand - South Lantau, Hong Kong - Nanhui, China - Koeje, Korea - Miura, Ninomiya, Japan||ASN 22000 km. - Ocean Cable Co: Hong Kong - China - Korea - Japan: India - UAE sections.||NYNEX - Marubeni - Dallah-Al Baraka - Telecom Holding Co||Flexservice III - Cable Innovator||System USA - UK - France 14500 km. India - Japan 11500||2 x 5 Gb/s|
|1997||GEMINI NORTH: - Oxwich Bay, Wales - Charlestown, Rhode Island, USA||ASN 12115 km||Gemini SCSL||Cable Venture - Cable Innovator - Agile||System 12600 km. Landing points at either end are linked by landline or cable. WFS Jan 2005.||60 + 55 Gb/s SDH|
|1997||GEMINI SOUTH: Porthcurno, England - Manasquan, New Jersey, USA||ASN 12115 km||Gemini SCSL||Cable Venture - Cable Innovator - Agile||System 12600 km. Landing points at either end are linked by landline or cable. WFS Jan 2005. See HUGO and BUS-2 (2006)||60 + 55 Gb/s SDH|
|1998||AC 1(Atlantic Crossing 1): Brookhaven, USA - Whitesands Bay, England - Beverwijk, Holland - Westerland, Germany - Brookhaven, USA||Tyco SSI||Global Crossing||?||System 14000 km.||4 x 10 Gb/s. Upgraded to 1 Tb/s|
|1999||COLUMBUS 3: Hollywood, Florida - Ponta Delgada, Azores - Lisbon, Portugal - Conil, Spain - Sicily, Italy||ASN - TYCO - Pirelli||Telecom Italia - Telefonica - Marconi - AT&T||?||System 9900 km.||2 x 10 Gb/s|
|2000||Whitesands Bay, England - Ballygrangans, Ireland: Ballinesker, Ireland - Crooklets, England||?||Global Crossing||?||System 495 km.||2 x 40 Gb/s|
|2000||AC 2: Widemouth Bay, England - Bellport, USA||?||Level 3 - Global Crossing||?||System 6157 km.||Initial 320 Gb/s. Upgraded to 640 Gb/s|
|2001||GTT North & GTT South (formerly HIBERNIA ATLANTIC) (Formerly 360 Atlantic)
Northern: Southport, England - Colraine, Ireland - Herring Cove, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Southern: Southport - Dublin, Ireland - Herring Cove - Lynn, Boston, USA
|Tyco SSI||Hibernia Atlantic purchased the system in 2003 - Worldwide Fibre Inc.
Hibernia was taken over by GTT Communications Inc. on 9 January 2017, and these cables are now GTT North and GTT South.
|Vercors - Iberus - Nordic King - Teneo - Dock Express 20 - Global Mariner - Atlantida||System 12,200 km. Commissioned in 2000 and in service April 2001. Vercors laid segment D3 3293 km||10.16 Tb/s|
|2001||TGN Atlantic: (Formerly VSNL Transatlantic, formerly TYCO Transatlantic). Avon, USA - Brean, England: Manasquan, USA - Saunton Sands, England||Tyco SSI||Tata Communications||?||System 12935 km. Landings in UK and USA are linked. Renamed following the takeover of Tyco cables by VSNL. Again renamed after VSNL was merged with Tata Communications||2.56 Tb/s|
|2001||TAT-14: Tuckerton - Manasquan, USA - Blaabjerg, Denmark - Norden, Germany - Katwijk, Holland - St Valery en Caux, France - Pentewen - Widemouth Bay, England - Tuckerton, USA||Ocean Cable Co (part)||AT&T - BT - DTAG - KPN - France Telecom||Cable Innovator - Cable Endeavour - Bold Endurance - Wave Sentinel - Subaru - Maersk Recorder - Maersk Forwarder - Sir Eric Sharp - Agile - Teliri - Fresnel - Vercors||System 15428 km. Route survey carried out by Fugro. Fresnel laid segments K3 and L 2855 km, of which 324 km was buried. Vercors laid segment G2 3355 km. Subaru laid 5414 km.||1.87 Tb/s. Four fiber pairs.
As of 2015, after two upgrades, TAT-14 is listed as having a total design capacity of 9.38Tb/s and a total system (lit) capacity of 3.15Tb/s.
WFS 15 December 2020
|2001||FA 1: NORTH: Northport, USA - Sennen Cove, England. Porthcurno, England - Plerin, France. SOUTH: Plerin, France - Island Park, USA||ASN 12570 km||Reliance Globalcom||Fresnel||System 14500 km. 6 fibre pairs. Includes land based networks. Fresnel laid LAY 1, 550 km of which 20 km was buried. A buried land cable runs from Sennen Cove via Skewjack Cable Station to Porthcurno. Reliance Infocomm bought the whole FLAG network for $211 million in 2004||4.6875 Tb/s. Upgraded to 10 Gb/s per wavelength by Infinera in 2010 and 2011|
|2003||APOLLO:Widemouth Bay, Bude, England - Brookhaven, USA: Lannion, France - Manasquan, USA||ASN||C&W - Alcatel - Apollo SCS Ltd||Ile de Batz - Ile de Brehat - Ile de Sein - Skandi Neptune||System North route 6200 km., 160 repeaters, 35 equalisers. South route 6530 km., 175 repeaters, 35 equalisers. Skandi Neptune laid the European shelf section on the North route 847 km. Ile de Brehat 4400 km main lay on the North route. Ile de Sein European section on the South route 1912 km. The remainder was laid by Ile de Batz||10 Gb/s per fiber pair, 4 pairs per leg, 80 wavelengths per pair, ultimate capacity 3.2Tb/s per leg|
|2012||Project Express: Somerset, England - Halifax, Canada||Cable installation by Huawei Marine Networks||Hibernia Atlantic||Due for completion Summer 2012. At Halifax the cable will link with Hibernia's Halifax - New York cable. Additional branching units are being installed in the cable to allow for future connections to other countries|
|2014||EMERALD EXPRESS: Shirley, Long Island, USA - Belmullet, Dublin, Ireland. Connections to Grindavik, Iceland and Portugal will be added at a later date via branching units||TE Subcom||Emerald Networks||System 5200 km.
Route survey commenced off Long Island on 9 December 2013
|100 Gb/s x 100 wavelengths x 6 fibre pairs. Total capacity 60 Tb/s|
|2015||ARCTIC FIBRE: Ninomiya, Japan - Gambell, Nome, Point Hope, Wainwright, Barrow, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska - Tuktoyakatuk, Cambridge Bay, Goja Haven, Hall Beach, Cape Dorset, Milton, Canada - Bude, Cornwall, England||?||Arctic Fibre||?||System 15,700 km.
Scheduled for completion in January 2016
100 Gb/s x 80 wavelengths x 3 fibre pairs: two express fibre pairs from Japan to London at 24 Tb/s, and one local fibre pair at 5Tb/s
GTT Express (formerly Hibernia Express):- Brean, Somerset, England - Cork, Ireland - Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Hibernia Networks. Hibernia was taken over by GTT Communications Inc., on 9 January 2017
|Route clearance was carried out as follows:- Canadian end - CS Resolute - CS Decisive. UK end - DSV Atlantic Guardian - CS Ikaros - CS Ile d'Aix - CS Ile d'Brehat||System 4600 kms. 6 fibre pair. Completed September 2015. At Halifax the cable links with Hibernia's Halifax - New York cable. Additional branching units are installed in the cable to allow for future connections to other countries||100 Gb/s x 100 wavelengths. Maximum capacity 53 Tb/s|
|2016||AE Connect (now AEC-1): Shirley, Long Island, USA - Killala, Co Mayo, Ireland||TE Connectivity SubCom||AECL|| AT&T
|System 5536 km. Route survey commenced off Long Island on 9 December 2013. Final splice November 2015 and ready for service 31 January 2016. Originally named EMERALD EXPRESS but the company was unable to raise the finance. The scheme was taken over by AECL and renamed.||6 fibre pairs: 130 wavelengths at 100 Gb/s on each fibre pair. Maximum capacity 78 Tb/s|
|2017||Fibre Atlantic:- Manasquan, USA - Cayeux sur Mer, France||Project abandoned||SemanticNet||System 6250 km.. 6-8 fibre pairs||100 Gb/s x 100 wavelengths per fibre pair. Total capacity 60 Tb/s|
|2018||MAREA:- Bilbao, Spain - Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA||TE SubCom||Facebook - Microsoft - Telxius||?||System 6600 km. RFS 1st quarter 2018||160 Tb/s|
|2020||HAVFRUE / AEC-2:- Kristiansand, Norway - Blaabjerg, Denmark - Lecanvey, Ireland - Wall Township, NJ, USA||TE Subcom||Aqua Comms acts as the overall system administrator for the Havfrue cable, and AEC-2 is the portion of the cable where it has ownership (Denmark, Ireland, and U.S. segments).
Bulk Infrastructure is the Norwegian landing party for Havfrue.
System 7200 km. Ready for service 1 December 2020
“Havfrue” is the Danish word for “Mermaid”
|Maximum capacity 108 Tb/s|
|2021||Dunant:- Saint-Hilaire-de-Riez, France - Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA||TE SubCom||?||System 6400 km.
RFS 3 February 2021
|Twelve fibre pair space-division multiplexing (SDM) design. Total capacity 250Tb/s
Named after Henri Dunant, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner and founder of the Red Cross
|2022||Grace Hopper:- New York, USA - Bude, Cornwall, England - Bilbao, Spain||SubCom||?||The main trunk is 6,354km, with an 837km branch to Spain. Both have 16 fibre pairs with fibre optic switching. Each pair has a total design capacity of approximately 22Tbps, and the system design capacity is approximately 352Tbps||Named after Admiral Grace Hopper
Opened for service between New York and Cornwall on 27 September 2022
|2023||Amitie:- Lynn, Massachusetts, USA - Bude, Cornwall, England - Le Porge, France||ASN||Facebook - Vodaphone - Microsoft - Aqua Comms||?||System 6792 km. RFS Third quarter 2023||Segment 1.1 Lynn to BU 1 16 fibre pairs. Segment 1.2 BU 1 to Bude 12 fibre pairs. Segment 1.3 BU 1 to Le Porge 12 fibre pairs. Each fibre pair 20 Tb/s. capacity|
Last revised: 23 July, 2023