Escher.gif (426 bytes)

History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network

Report of the Joint Committee Appointed by the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council for Trade and the Atlantic Telegraph Company to Inquire into the Construction of Submarine Telegraph Cables together with the Minutes of Evidence and Appendix. (1861)

The full text of the report may be read at Google Books


[N.B. In this index, except otherwise specified, the figures refer to the Questions in the Evidence.]

ALLAN, THOMAS. Evidence, 1582-1661. Statement of his system of Ocean telegraphy; page 62.

(Allan, Thos.) System of cables, 1586-1588; cables for shallow water to be deeply mailed, 1590, 1591; deep water cables, 1590; construction for shore ends, 1592-1595, 1664; metallic core of copper and iron, a means of reducing weight and gravity of cable, 1596-1597; inexpediency of using breaks in paying out cables, 1598-1601; specific gravity most suited for cables to be paid out, 1602; electrical difficulties not to be apprehended from the use of copper and steel wires in the centre of a cable, 1603; proportionate size of copper and steel wires, 1604; electrical result in velocity, as compared with conductors wholly copper, 1603-1609, 1622-1628; small size of conductors in Dublin and Holyhead cable, cause of failure, 1610, 1615; no difficulty in paying out from the use of centre wires, 1615, 1616; a cable of such construction for the Atlantic might be carried in one ship, 1616-1621; increasing the size of conductors a means of avoiding charge, 1629-1634; better conductability obtained by placing steel wires in centre of cable, 1637; proportion of charge relative to the surface of the conductor, 1639; no break apparatus necessary, 1644-1649, 1656-1660, 1664; cable inextensible, and not so expensive as the Gibraltar cable, 1649, 1650, 1657; weight in ship and in sea, specific gravity and cost per mile, 1649.
(Canning, Samuel.) Difficulty in coiling, 1517-1521.
(Clark, Latimer.) Mechanical objections to principle, 3612-3614.
(Glass, R.A.) Principle of putting the strength of a cable in the centre, 402, 404-406.
(Jenkin, Fleming.) Electrical objections, 2886-2888.
(Longridge, J.A.) Opinion upon 769, 775; conducting power not diminished by the union of steel and copper wire, 775-777; reasons for placing the strength of a cable on the inside, 778-806; not liable to injury in paying out, 809.
(Thomson, W., LL.D.) not advantageous to introduce other metal with the copper, except of a higher conductivity.
(Woodhouse, W.H.) not advantageous, 949-954.

(Brett, J. W.) Not satisfied with the form of cable, 1439-1442; early proceedings too hurried, 1443, 1444; electrical tests not sufficiently attended to, 1445-1447; injured by application of great battery power, 1448, 1449.
(Bright, Sir Charles T.) Separate contracts for the manufacture of cable objectionable, 1174-1184; form of outer covering, 1184, 1190; effect of heat upon the gutta-percha of first cable, 1192; testing in water, 1193-1195; experimental expeditions, 1197, 1198; break and paying out machinery, 1199, 1200, 1203, 1204, 1213-1222; first voyage, 1202-1205; experiments of joining cable in the middle, 1206-1210, 1256-1259, 1261; experiments made after first and second expeditions, 1213, 1223-1268; paying out of second cable, 1269-1302; angle of cable in paying out, 1279; strain in paying out shown by the dynamometer, 1281-1286, 1290, 1291; cause of cessation of signals, 1301; failure attributable to hurry, 1316; desirability of further soundings, 1324-1327; strength of cable, 1334.
(Canning, Samuel.) Experiments to determining a suitable cable, 1475-1479; reasons for adopting the form used, 1483, 1484; steel for covering could not be procured in sufficient quantity, 1485, 1486; cause of failure attributable to imperfect manufacture, and perhaps extraordinary battery power, 1493-1499; satisfactory result of experimental trip to the Bay of Biscay, 1551-1553.
(Chatterton, John.) Heat the cause of the eccentricity of the wires, 1130-1132.
(Clark, Latimer.) Copper conductor too small, 3619.
(Dayman, Commander Joseph.) Attended “Niagara” in paying out the western half, 3190-3193; paying out apparatus perfect, 3194; smallest amount of speed in laying, 3195; in laying a cable, would prefer starting from America, rather than from England, 3196, 3197; preference to a lighter cable, 3198, 3199.
(Glass, R.A.) Opinion upon, 301-314; additional experiments should be made before laying another cable, 310, 314-316; eccentricity of wires in the gutta-percha from radiation, 414-417.
(Henley, William T.) Testings after failure, 2320-2332; distance of fault from Valentia, 2320; fault apparently in the manufacture, 2331, 2332; testing speed and retardation at Keyham, 2333-2339; number of words obtained per minute, 2341; comparison of speed with battery and induction coils, 2343-2345; no damage to the cable from employing strong induction coils or batteries, 2349-4359.
(Hughes, David Edward.) Atlantic cable injured by using induction coils, 2014-2016; Daniell’s battery would increase the injury from induction coils, 2017-2020; insulation of cable at Keyham generally bad, 2068; defects owing to exposure to heat, to the numerous joints, and the use of induction coils, 2070; opinion very favourable to the successful laying of a new cable, 2071.
(Kell, Captain J.
) Failure from too much haste, 562, 563; Valentia unfit for terminus of cable from shelvy nature of bottom, 570, 571; Kinsale, favourable nature of the bottom, 572, 574; facility of uncoiling, 458,459; coating of cable, 460, 461; injury by coiling and uncoiling, 466, 469; description of first failure, 475; attributable to deficiencies in the machinery, 476; difficulty in stopping a screw steamer in case of accident, 478, 480; no kinks in laying cable, 479; unsatisfactory condition of cable after uncoiling, 484; successful trip, events from time of starting, 487-539; stoppage of the electrical communication, 493-496; injury to gutta-percha insulator by the heat, 498, 499; injury from mode of covering cable with tar, 508, 509; eccentricity of the copper wires, 510, 511; impossibility of testing for eccentricities, 512,.513; eccentricities might have been avoided by taking more time, 514; failure from too much haste, 552, 563.
(Newall, R.S.) Manufactured 1,250 miles of the cable, 4459; testing of cable under water declined by the Company on the score of expense, 4460.
(Saward, George.) Successful message sent by Government to countermand troops, 3089; speed of messages originally expected, 3100, 3101; ignorance of the directors of the defects of the cable, 3533-3037; cutting the cable for testing, 3038-3040; defective joints, 3041-3043; too great hurry the cause of failure, 3044-3052; measures taken to resuscitate cable, 3049-3051; want of practical skill, 3052.
(Smith, Willoughby.) Failure from too much haste, 737, 740.
(Thomson, William, LL.D.) Signalling through the cattle and strength of electrical current, 2476-2478; experimental cruise to Bay of Biscay, 2479-2488; tests applied during the laying of the cable, 2490-2507; loss of continuity, 2508-2513; defect in insulation, 2514-2518; defects due to manufacture or mechanical injury, 2519-2521; sufficiency of tests employed during the manufacture, 2523, 2323; tests preferred for a submarine cable, 2524-2526; failure of the electric current immediately after laying due to defects in insulation, 4528-4532; general opinion of causes of failure, 2536-2533; position of fault in cable, 2539-2545; maximum of speed at which messages were transmitted, 2348-2550; cable injured by the use of induction coils and battery power, 2551-2553; minimum amount of battery power to give a readable signal through a perfect Atlantic cable, 2556, 2557; manner of receiving and forwarding messages at Valentia, 2561-2564; earth currents observed at Valentia, 2565; reversal signals, 2566-2572; experiments at Valentia after failure of currents, 2573; experiments at Newfoundland, 2574-2588; a supposed fault about 400 miles from Newfoundland, 2588; no serious obstacles in laying a new cable that may not be overcome, 2604, 2605; a new cable may be laid with certainty, 2608.
(Varley, C.F.) Results of experiments at Valentia after failure, 2942, 2943; report upon state of cable, 2942; probability of being able to use the cable, 2943-2945; pressure upon the gutta-percha not injurious to its insulation, 2947-2956.
(Walker, W.) Experiments on retardation in Atlantic cable, testing by galvanometer, formulae for oscillations, results of experiments, and general opinion upon cable, 2249-2305.
(Washington, Captain John.) Nature of bottom of Bulls Arm Bay on the coast of Newfoundland, 3748, 3767; further soundings of the Atlantic necessary, 3811, 3812.
(Webb, F.C.) Failure in the first year owing to the inadequacy of the break, 4637-4639.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Testing of cable, 1839-1843; electrical state of the cable after manufacture in 1857, 1844, 1845; injured from exposure to heat after manufacture, 1847, 1857-1872; false soldered joint in manufacture, 1847, 1857; cable not tested under water, 1873-1882; mode of testing cable at Keyham, 1883-1887; testings of cable after submergence, 1888-1904; effects of the strong currents from the induction coil, 1903-1907; construction of the induction coils, 1905, 1906; use of a large number of cells in a Daniell’s battery liable to injure cable, 1908-1912; risk from stretching the conductor, 1916, 1917; injury to cable by use of induction coils and Daniell’s battery, 1918-1923; an Atlantic cable should have hemp in the outer covering, should be flexible, but not liable to stretch or shrink, 1970.

AUSTIN, ADMIRAL HORATIO, C.B., Evidence, 3401.

Origin and arrangements under which first proceedings took place, 3314-3030; progress of the works of the company, 3031, 3032; ignorance of the directors of the defects in the cable, 3033-3037; actual cash outlay, 3046-3048; difficulty in raising funds for a new cable, 3053, 3054; views as to the description of aid required from the Government, 3055-3059; question of a Government subvention, 3060-3064; price of messages, 3065-3067, 3071, 3072; terms of Government assistance guaranteed, 3053, 3068-3070.

Description of, 2442, 2446.

BEECHER, R.N., CAPTAIN A.B. Letter to Captain Galton, R.E., enclosing copy of an old memorandum relative to a submarine volcano off Iceland, page 915.

BELCHER, C.B., CAPTAIN SIR EDWARD, Evidence, 4257-4329. Letter to Captain Galton, relative to icebergs, temperature of the sea, &c., page 250.

(Newall, R.S.) Proportions taken as a basis of insulation for other cables, 4401; speed of working, 4486, 4487.
(Woodhouse, W.H.), process of laying, 887, 868; length, 889, 890; first cable laid with a cone and rings, 891 small amount of slack in laying, 899, 893; depth, 894; great facility in laying light cables, 901-909; core of No. 16 wire, 908.

BONA CAGLIARI CABLE. See Cagliari and Galeta.

BRETT, JOHN W., Evidence, 1337-1499.

BRIGHT, SIR CHARLES TILSTON, Evidence, 1162-1336.

(Brett, J.W.) Depth, 1349; broken by an up and down strain, 1351-1356; description of second cable, 1357-1361; failure of second cable, 1362-1367; angle in paying out cable 1365-1367; contract with Messrs. Newall, for a new cable, 1368-1372, 1393; condition upon being laid, 1373-1379; cause of defects, 1380, 1384, 1387, 1392, 1394.
(Gisborne, L.) Greatest depth, 82; condition of, 84-90.
(Glass, R.A.) Cause of failure, 377-384.
(Newall, R.S.) Observations on the proportions of the cable, 4400; mistake in calculating the weight on the break wheel in paying out cable, 4402; messages sent through each of the four wires after laying, 4405; faults that have arisen chiefly due to the land lines, 4406; cable broken within the last two months, 4407, 4408; development of faults in the cable, 4410; weight of cable, 4414; Mr. Brett’s information and experience not sufficient in laying cable, 4418; Mr. Brett’s statement of sudden depths incorrect, 4419-4422; recovered portions of cable laid by Mr. Brett found to have been laid in a tangled mass, 4476.
(West, F.C.) Recovery of cable in 700 fathoms, 4603, 4604; no kinks in cable, 4606, 4607.

(Gisborne, L.) Cause of failure, 68.
(Brett, J.W.) Weight of Malta and Corfu cable, 1410.
(Henley, W.T.) Cause of failure of Cagliari and Malta cable, 2315-2317.
(Newall, R.S.) The Corfu cable damaged by lightning, and the Malta cable by boats’ anchors, 4440.
(West, F.C.) Particulars of the repair of the cable in 1859, 4592; for the failure of cable, 4593-4602.

(Gisborne, L.) Failure of three attempts to lay cable 37-65; causes of failure, 38, 65, 66; fault at 1500 fathoms, 40; fault due to stretching and shrinking of materials composing the cable, 41; size of core the same as that of the Atlantic cable, 51
(Newall, R.S.)
Cable broke in attempting to raise it on account of failure in the insulation, 4499, 4502; same description of cable as that of the Red Sea, 4500.

CANNING, SAMUEL, Evidence, 1450-1581.

Paying out machinery, 2436, 9437; depth of cable, 2439-2440.

(Brett, J.W.) Number of wires, 1427-1431; expense of repairs for last seven years, 1432-1434; cause of damages, 1435.
(Preece, William Henry.) Size, weight, length, and depth, 2621-2623; covered with gutta percha, 2626; injury by friction on rocks, 2630-2632; not injured by the shingle, 2633-2636; broken by the edge of a rock, 2641-2646, 2662- 2669; repaired, 2646-2654; broken a second time by wearing on the sharp edge of a rock, 2657-2659; remedy adopted, 2660; neglect of taking proper soundings cause of the accidents. 2661, 2662, 2739; another accident by the abrasion of the whole of the copper wire, 2688-2694; a kink the cause of another stoppage, 2694-269.length worked through, 2780, 2781; alternate currents of electricity used in working, 2784; effect of earth currents, 2789, 2790


CHATTERTON, JOHN, Evidence, 1049-1162.

(Canning, Samuel.) Favourable opinion of, 1573-1575.
(Chatterton, John.) Greatly improves the insulation, and not so much affected by temperature as gutta percha, 1061-1066; ingredients and manner of applying the compound, 1158-1162.
(Clark, Latimer.
) A very high insulator, 3603-3606.
(Hancock, Walter,) 2177.
(Jenkin, Fleeming.) 2816, 28172829, 2830-2833.
(Siemens, W.) 192, 193.
(Smith, Willoughby,) 669, 670; improves the resistance to water pressure 678, 679.
(Varley, C.F.) 2965; prevention of flaws in gutta percha, 2970.

CLARK, LATIMER, Evidence, 3517-3653.

(Clark, Latimer.) Conductivity of copper wire, 3621-3628..
(Thomson, W., LL.D ) Experiments upon, 2458-2465; conductivity of an alloy of copper and lead, 2466, 2467; mode of testing at the gutta percha works, 2468-2471; conductivity of copper wires having a spiral steel covering scarcely affected by the steel, 2596, 2597; not advantageous to introduce other metal with the copper as a conductor, except of a higher conductivity, 2598-2601.


(Allen, Thomas.) Electrical difficulties not to be apprehended from the use of copper and steel wires in the centre of a cable 1603; electrical results as compared with conductors wholly copper, 1603-1609, 1622-1628; small size of conductors in Dublin and Holyhead cable the cause of failure, 1610, 1615.
(Clark, Latimer.) More rapid speed by increasing the size of the conductor, than by, increasing the insulator, 3619
(Fitzroy, Admiral R.) Recommends a single copper wire of large dimensions, 3467-3491-3501.
(Fleeming, Jenkin.) Resistance of copper conductors, 2840-2844; preference to a thick copper wire, 2880.
(Glass, R.A.) No strain should be put on the conductors, 402.
(Hughes, D.E.) A large conductor superior as regards speed, 1976-1978.
(Longridge, J.A.) No diminution of the conducting power from contact of the copper and steel wires; 775-777.
(Saward, George.) Size of, 3099.
(Thomson, William LL.D.) Size best adapted for rapid transmission in long distances, 2594, 2595; conducting power of copper wire scarcely increased by a spiral steel covering 2596-2597; not advantageous to introduce other metal with the copper, except it has a higher conductivity, 2598-2601.
(Varley, C.F.) Large conductors the only means of obtaining rapid and certain communication through long lines, 2915-2924; proper size for the conductor of an Atlantic cable, 2935,
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Result of increasing the size of the conducting wires, 1831-1838.


DAFT, THOMAS BARNABAS, Evidence, 2134-2151.

(Chatterton, J.) Mode of testing adopted, 1135-1137.

DAYMAN, COMMANDER JOSEPH, R.N., Evidence, 3103-3227. Letter illustrating the experience gained by practical experiment in measuring the depth of the ocean, page

Recent examination, 1413-1421; condition of, 1467-1472, 1531, 1537; records of testing, 1543-1546.
(West, Charles.) Leave from British and French Government to lay cable, 3229-3234, 3298-3240; cause of relinquishing the laying of cable 3233-3237, 3239; concession granted to Messrs. Brett, in 1847 3240-3242; supposition of the French Government in making the concession as to the originators of submarine telegraphy 3245.

(Allan, Thomas.) Instrument for indicating strain upon cables, 1528-1530.
(Bright, Sir C.T.
) Strain upon cable shown by the dynamometer, 1261-1286, 1290-1291.

DE BERG’S CABLE, 3615-3618.

(Clark. Latimer.) Machine for balancing and counteracting the effects of earth,currents, 3630, 3631; strength of earth currents as compared with battery power, 3632; peculiarities of earth currents, 3633-3639,
(Brett, John W.) Effect of, 2789, 2790.
(Thomson, W., LL.D.) Currents observed at Valentia, 2565.
(Varley, C.F.) 2919-2914.

(Gisborne, Lionel.) In Suakin and Cosseir line, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 11; remedied by cutting out damaged portion and splicing, 12; appeared gradually in Candia and Alexandria cable, 44; stretching of core causes gradually a fault, 45-49; faults in the Mediterranean lines solely attributable to the manufacture, 107.
(Glass, R.A.) Faults in manufacture developed in deep water in a short time, 340-344; fault in Holland cable from a nail, 356-362.
(Mayes, William.) Fault in Red Sea cable which has improved, 4726; other faults, 4732-4734, 4826-4829, 4872; nature of faults, 4744, 4746; fault from tension in paying out, 4748, 4788, 4795; faults from defects in gutta percha, 4796-4799; faults from the breaking of iron wires, 4801, 4395, 4896.
(Siemens, W.) Several in Mediterranean lines, 162; in the Canea-Syria line, owing to cavities in gutta-percha or eccentricities of wires, 132; in gutta-percha covering, causing electrolisis, 132; in Candia cable from insufficient strength of hemp covering causing elongation of core, or the eccentricity of the conductor, 141.
(Webb, F.C.). Experience in ascertaining by electrical tests the position of faults, 4610, 4611.

FITZROY, ADMIRAL ROBERT, F.R.S., Evidence, 3467-3516.

FORDE, HENRY CHARLES, Evidence, 4142-4256.

FULLER, JOHN, Evidence, 4330-4396.

(Bright, Sir C.T.) Strength of; 1335, 1336.
(Clark, Latimer.) Cable well designed, but shore ends too slight, 3541-3545; necessity to inject oil or some suitable fluid to prevent water in deep sea penetrating to centre of cable, 3547-3556; plan of welding steel wires objectionable, 3558.
(Canning, Samuel.) Too much hemp in the cable, 1554-1562.
(Dayman, Commander J.) Gibraltar Strait subject to action of strong tide or current, 3168-3170.
(Forde, Henry Charles.) No hesitation in laying such a cable, 4171; advantages in laying a hemp and iron covered cable over an iron covered cable, 4172-4177, 4193-4199; strands of the cable should be laid up with compound, 4206-4209.
(Glass, R.A.) Specific gravity, 414; safety of laying in deep water, 397-431; might be covered with advantage with an india-rubber compound 742-745; might be covered with hemp and tar, 756 -761.
(Siemens, C.W.) Testing improved under pressure, 3852; insulation test, 3854; effect of temperature, 3859-3864; experiments for detecting holes in the gutta-percha covering, 3865-3868.
(Varley, C.F.) Shore ends not stout enough, 2980, 2984.

GISBORNE, LIONEL, Evidence, 1-121.

GLASS, RICHARD ATTWOOD, Evidence, 246-426.
Tabular statement of cables laid by, 249; conditions necessary in manufacturing submarine lines, 256.

(Brett, J.W.) The best insulator for cables, 1426.
(Canning, Samuel.) Impermeability in water, 1512, 1570, 1571.
(Chatterton, John.) Process in manufacture for core, 1053, 1053; advantages and cost of using in successive coats, 1054-1060; insulation greatly improved by Chatterton’s compound, 1061-1065; permeability of, 1066-1068, 1111; price, 1039-1074; does not deteriorate in submarine cables, 1075-1077; covering with lead, 1079; the best insulator, 1082-1084; eccentricities in wires and air holes prevented by the number of coatings, 1087, 1088, 1092-1097, 1103, 1104; testing cables in water, 1098, 1102, 1120-1129; vulcanized, 1106-1110; chemical action causing decay, 1138-1141; formation of an oxide of copper from contact of copper wire, 1143, 1144; effect of marine insects upon, 1146; indestructible when protected from the action of the air, 1147, 1143; wood tar a preservative, 1149, 1150; creosote a solvent, 1151; coal tar injurious, 1159; resin and gums not injurious, 1136, 1157.
(Clark, Latimer.) Impermeable in water at great depths, 3559-3560; liable to small faults which may be remedied by application of a compound, 3561-3566; does not stand high as an insulator, 3575; extremely perishable when exposed to air, 3578; preserved by covering with oil, tar or asphalte, 3578-35S4.
(Gisborne,Lionel.) Perfectly central covered wire can be manufactured, 60, 63; a conductor to some extent, 75, 76; result of pressure upon, 72, 73; chemical action of the conductor upon at great pressure, 74; chemical action developed by pressure, 77-80.
(Glass, R.A.) High opinion of, as an insulator, 258; durable qualities, 259.
(Hancock, Walter.) Gutta-percha as an insulator, 2153; experiments upon its permeability in water, 2158, 2167; light and atmosphere appear to be injurious, 2162, 2163; salt water not injurious, 2164; adulteration, 2168, 2169; market supply, 2170-2174; compounds of gutta-percha as insulating substances, 2175, 2176; scarcely a possibility of a better insulator than gutta-percha, 2179; experiments upon ordinary covered gutta-percha wire, 2187, 2188.
(Henley, W.T.) Decay from want of moisture, 2385, 2387, 2103,2404; underground lines covered with tarred yarn and marine glue, 2388-2396, 2398; durability of gutta-percha under ground, 2396, 2400; affected by fungi, 2405-2408; oxidation of iron in gutta-percha, 2409; instances of decay, 2432; preference to pure gutta-percha as an insulator, 2375.
(Newall, R.S.) No confidence in gutta-percha covered cables, 4431; means employed to fill up air holes in the gutta-percha covering, 4431, 4432; gutta-percha becomes deteriorated from the increased demand, 4433; faults chiefly owing to air bubbles, 4435; 800 miles of cable lost between Candia and Alexandria owing to faults in the gutta-percha, 4495, 4510, 4512; gutta-percha indestructible in water, 4516, 4517; but totally unsuited to warm climate, 4534.
(Thomson, William, LL.D.) Not affected by pressure of water, 2588-2593; the best insulator known, 9609.
(Jenkin, Fleeming.) Insulating properties at various temperatures, 2803-2814; Chatterton’s compound not so good an insulator at low temperatures as gutta percha 2816, 9817-9829, 2830, 2833.
(Saward, George.) Very suitable covering for wires under water, 3014; market value of old cables, 3018-3020; cost of new material, 3023; effect of lightning upon covered wire, 3090-3092; gutta-percha when laid in chalk soils, 3097, 3098; marine glue a preservative in underground lines, 3011, 3012.
(Siemens, W.) Eccentricity of conductor in insulator, 141; air bubbles, 143; tests for detecting eccentricities, &c., 146; gradual deterioration of weak parts in insulators, 147; insulation well enough for practical purposes, 3880; liability to give way from certain causes unless carefully dealt with, 3880-3882
(Smith, Willoughby.) Best material for insulation, 592, 593; improvements and variations in quality, 603-610; means of detecting an inferior quality, 612, 613; preservation of central position of the wires, 614-617; detection of eccentricities of wires, 617, 618; objection to testing under great pressure, 625-627; permeability of, 633; means of prevention of air holes, 641-650; air holes injurious to the core, 681; deterioration of when in contact with copper, 651; exposure to air without moisture, injurious, 652-655, 696-699; additional cost of covering wire with several coats, 660-665; resin not injurious, 672; creosote injurious, 673; temperature at which it becomes plastic, 674, 675; temperature of 130 deg liable to cause eccentricities, 676, 677; should be protected by an impervious outer coating, 684; indestructible in water, 700; affected by fungi, 701, 702; effect of insects upon, 703-705; effect of mixing sulphur with, 713-716; supply of material unlimited, 718; increase in the price, 719-721; nothing inherent in gutta percha to render cables so covered hazardous, 732, 733; nothing in gutta-percha to prevent a cable being quite permanent, 734-736; Mr. Macintosh’s plan for vulcanizing, 706; vulcanizing does not improve the insulation, 707; experiments upon vulcanized gutta-percha, 709-712.
(Walker, C.V.) Gutta-percha not a satisfactory covering for land wires, 2214-2229; very good under water, 2230; improvement in quality of gutta-percha, 2240; effect of gutta-percha and india-rubber combined, 2306-2309.
(Window, F.W.) The beet thing to employ known at present, 219.

Composed of one solid wire, 2616-2618.
(Webb, F.C.) Means adopted for repair of cable, 4587, 4588; breakage of cable caused by the anchors of fishing vessels, 4589.

HANCOCK, WALTER. Evidence, 2152-2209.

(Canning, Samuel.) Not a sufficient protection for cables, 1473, 1474; experiments upon, 1480-1482; saturating with tar, 1573-1581.
(Forde, Henry Charles.) Preference to cables covered with hemp combined with steel wires, 4192; experiments upon hemp covered cables, 4193-4199.
(Gisborne, L.) Not alone a proper material to cover cables with, 38; too elastic, 38; saturated with tar, shrinks in water in a few hours, 49; hemp covered cables liable to injure the electrical state of the wires, by elongation, 53.
(Glass, R.A.) hemp saturated with tar as a covering, 260, 261, 278-284.
(Kell, Captain J.) Covering cables with hemp, 465, 466.
(Macintosh, John.) Contraction of hemp covered cables, 840
(Newall, R.S.) Hempen cables used in the Mediterranean injured by the teredo, 4446-4448, 4570; hempen cables not difficult to day with a suitable apparatus, 4449; hemp an objectionable form of covering, 4535; no advantage in hemp combined with wire, 4506, 4512-4515, 4518; liability to rot in deep water, 4503; contraction of hemp avoided by using a patent wire roping machine, 4509.

HENLEY, WILLIAM THOMAS, Evidence, 2311-2446.


(Newall, R.S.) Superiority of, 4526, 4527; mode of application to cables, 4468-4476.


(Chatterton, John.) 1085, 1036, 1153-1155; records made by Hughes’ patent printing instrument, 2091-2095; comparison of records made with Morse’s system, 2025, 2026; system of using the currents, 2027-2042; insulation by means of a semi-fluid substance between the coatings of a cable, 2043; cables insulated by the semi-fluid, four times superior to gutta-percha, 2055-2056; semi-fluid cheaper than gutta-percha, 2056.
(Clark, Latimer.) Insulation by fluid very excellent, 3607-3611; improves the density of the gutta-percha, and does not injure it, 3608; principle of machine for printing through cables, 3641-3653; speed of working, 3644; works with a weaker current than any other machine, 3647-3649
(Gisborne, L.) 61-63.
(Henley, W.T.) Opinion of, 2381-2384.
(Smith, Willoughby.) 656-659.

(Canning, Samuel.) Resistance under water, 1571.
(Chatterton, John.) An excellent protection to insulated wires as an cuter covering, 1081.
(Clark, Latimer.) Stands high as an insulator, 3588; effect of contact with copper wire, 3588, 3589; Messrs. Silver’s plan of covering wire, the most approved, 3590, 3591; india-rubber covered with gutta-percha would form a good cable, 3592, 3593; vulcanized, 3594-3601; Macintosh’s process of curing india-rubber or gutta-percha, 2602.
(Daft, Thomas Barnabas.) Vulcanized india-rubber insulator, peculiar properties of adhesion to the metal, 2135-2145; believed to be perfectly durable in water, 2145; facility of making joints, 2144; placed upon the wire longitudinally in any number of coatings, 2150, 2151; tests of insulation favourable, 2149.
(Fuller, John) Masticated india-rubber the only rubber that insulates, 4333; process of mastication, 4340; mode of applying india-rubber to the wire, 4335-4339; experiments upon india-rubber under pressure in water, 4341-4356; cause of, and means used to prevent liquefaction of india-rubber, 4357-4360, 4388-4392; india-rubber never decomposed against the wire under water, 4361; does not decompose with great heat, 4363-4365; greatest heat used without affecting its insulation, 4383-4385; insulation at different degrees of temperature, 4386; high insulating properties of india-rubber, 4370; longest length of india-rubber cable laid at Kurrachee, 4472, 4573, and the Isle of Wight, 4393; durability of the india-rubber wires used at the Strand offices, 4393, and now being laid through tunnels on the South-eastern Railway, 4394-4396; opinion upon Hooper’s preparation of india-rubber, 4366-4368.
(Hancock, Walter.) High opinion of as an insulator, 2179; preference for cables with coatings first of gutta-percha and then layers of india-rubber and gutta-percha, 2180-2186; tests, 2186, 2190, 2191; price of mixed cable 25 per cent. higher than ordinary gutta-percha, 2193; decomposition of india-rubber in contact with gutta-percha, 2203-2209; crude tar a solvent of india-rubber and gutta-percha, 2207.
(Henley, W.T.) India-rubber as an insulator, 2376-2378.
(Jenkin, Fleeming.) Insulating property about the same as gutta-percha, 2821-2823; charge of electricity in india-rubber covered wire only three-fourths of that of gutta-percha, 2823, 2824.
(Macintosh, John.) Superior in some cases to gutta-percha as an insulator, 834, 835; mode of putting on core, in successive coats under pressure, and vulcanized on the outside, 835, 836; tests, 840-847.
(Preece, Henry.) Southampton and Isle of Wight cable, 2751-2761, 2766-2768; india-rubber not a satisfactory covering for a cable, 2762; mode of testing india-rubber, 2763-2765; care in selecting, 2770.
(Saward, George.) Decay in india-rubber covered wires, 3015.
(Siemens, W.) As an insulator, 178, 179; adaptation as an insulator, 187, 204, 205; not liable to cause kinks, or to buckling the conducting wires, 189; mechanical difficulty to use as an insulator, 197, 198; grease injurious to, 199; chemical decomposition, 201-203; vulcanized, 188.
(Silver, Hugh Adams.) Process of covering wire, 2073-2075, 2083-2085; decomposition in some cases close to the wire, 2076-2082; experiments as to the insulating power in comparison with gutta-percha with Chatterton’s compound, 2090-2092; experiments with pressure, 2093-2104; absorption of water, 2105-2107.
(Thomson, William, LL.D.) India-rubber not strong enough for cable, 2609.
(Varley, C.F.) Observations on india-rubber covered wire, 2957; insulating properties as compared with gutta-percha, 2957; applied to wires in its natural state would be superior to gutta-percha, 2957, 2953, 2974-2976; Silver’s india-rubber covered wire, testing of, 2966.
(West, Charles.) Durability of cable laid across Portsmouth harbour, 2110-2113; not in the slightest affected by the copper wire, 2114, 1115; softening to be attributed to an inferior material, 2116, 2119, 2125; effect of oil or grease, 2120-2124; East india-rubber not used for insulation, 2126, 2127; testings, 2129; india-rubber cables covered with platted iron wire, 2130; should not be covered with iron for deep sea cables, 2131.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Messrs. Silver’s mode of insulation, 1939-1942; pressure upon india-rubber covered wire, 1944; india-rubber not porous, but absorbent, 1946-1952.
(Window, F.W.) not sufficient knowledge, to justify its use at present, 219; Mr. Silver’s process 220, 221; vulcanized, 222-237.
(Wray, Leonard.) Objections to india-rubber, 1700.

(Macintosh, John.) Experiments upon absorption of moisture, 869-883.
(Smith, Willoughby.) Experiments upon comparative merits as insulators, 395-601; experiments upon a compound of, 666, 667.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Gutta-percha not absorbent, 1852.

(Hancock, Walter.) For coating wires, 2193; might be used without the hemp serving, 2194; cost, 2198, 2199; insulating properties, 2202.

(Allan, Thomas.) Increasing the size of conductor a means of avoiding charge, 1629-1634; proportion of charge relative to the surface of the conductor, 1639.
(Bright, Sir Charles T.) Experiments upon induction, 1317-1319; cause and means of overcoming retardation, 1390-1392.
(Clark, Latimer.) Effect of false currents in coiled conductors, 3629.
(Jenkin, Fleeming.) Resistance of copper conductors, 2840-2844; charge directly as the length, 2846-2851; retardation through long cables, 2853-2871; large surface of conductor in Mr. Allan’s cable would increase the charge, 2888.
(Henley, W.T.) Induction and retardation in land lines, 2412, 2413.
(Hughes, David E.) Increase of size of conductor does not increase largely the inductive effect, 1978; retardation not due so much to induction as to charge and discharge, 1937-1989; charge in proportion to the resistance of the wire, 2001; time required to charge a cable to its maximum, 2001-2003.
(Longridge, James A.) Retardation in long cables owing to the smallness of conductors.
(Preece, William H.) Retardation, 2771-2779.
(Siemens, W.) Return currents in badly insulated wire, 154, 155; retardation increased with increased length, 179-174; formulae for expression of retardation, 198.
(Thomson, W., LL.D.) Observations upon conductivity, induction and retardation, 2450-2457.
(Varley, C.F.) Law of induction, 2915-2924, 2034.
(Walker, W.) Experiments on retardation on Atlantic cable, testing by galvanometer, formulae for oscillations, 2249-2335.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Laws governing retardation, 1719; size of conductors for overcoming retardation, 1820, 1821, 1831-1835; experiments on surface induction, 1822-1830.

(Hughes, David E.) Atlantic cable injured by the use of induction coils, 2014-2016; Daniel’s battery would increase the injury from use of induction coils, 2017-2020, 2070.
(Thomson, William, LL.D.) Atlantic cable injured by the use of induction coils, 2551-2553.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Effects of strong currents from induction coils, 1903, 1907; construction of induction coils, 1905,1906; injury to Atlantic cable by the use of induction coils, 1918-1923.

INSULATORS. See Chatterton’s compound; Daft’s Insulator; Gutta Percha; Hughes’ Composition, India-rubber, Vulcanite; and Wray’s Composition.

Causes of failure, 288-292.

JENKIN, FLEEMING, Evidence, 2800-2890, Tables of experiments on india-rubber and gutta-percha covered wire, page 144. (Diagrams, Figs. Nos, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.) Letter to Captain Galton on faults in submarine cables, page 145.

KELL, CAPTAIN JOHN, Evidence, 427-588, Plates referred
to in evidence, Nos.

(Clark, Latimer.) Injury to cables by lightning, 3561-3567; remedy proposed, 3567-3569.
(Preece, William Henry.) Injurious effects, 2705-2722; use of conductors, 2712-2715.
(Saward, G.) Effect of lightning on underground wires, 3090-3092.
(Siemens, W.) Effect upon telegraph cables, 147-151; means of avoiding injury, 165-162.
(Varley, C.F.) Effect upon underground wires, 2977; use of conductors, 2978.
(Walker, C.V.) Effect upon underground lines, 2242, 2243; precautions, 2294-2248.
(Newall, R.S.) Means of guarding a cable against lightning, 4444.


MACINTOSH, JOHN, Evidence, 833-883.

(Clark, Latimer.) Comparative absorption of electro-magnetic currents and battery power, 3640.
(Henley, W.T.) Best for working through a long submarine cable, 3360; electrical current more constant, and not of the burning character of that from induction coils, 2366-2371.
(Thomson, William, LLD.) Preferred to battery power, 2554, 2555.

MALTA AND CAGLIARI CABLE. See Cagliari and Corfu.

MALTA AND CORFU CABLE. See Cagliari and Corfu.

MAYES, WILLIAM, MASTER, R.N., Evidence, 4682‑4904.

MEDITERRANEAN CABLES. See also Cagliari and Galeta, Cagliari and Corfu, Candia and Alexandria, Ceuta and Algesiras; Spezzio and Corsica.
(Glass, R.A.) Depths of, 368-369; failure of Spezzia and Corsica, and Cape Spartevento and Bona cables, 431, 449-451; construction, 445; weight, 432, 446, 447, 454, 486; failure owing to use of sailing vessel, 432, 438-440; number of conducting wires 448; working of, 453; depth, 441-443; injury by repeated coiling, 485, 436.
(Webb, F.C.) Failure of cables simply due to insufficient mechanical knowledge on the part of persons employed in laying, 4635, 4636; causes of failures, 4640, 4644.

NEWALL, ROBERT STIRLING, Evidence, 4397-4556.

(Canning, Samuel.) Description of, 1452-1466.

(Brett, J.W.) Examination of, 1421; ceasing of continuity from a hole in the gutta-percha, 1421-1424.
(Canning, S.) Loss of insulation during the laying, 1547-1549.

(Allan, Thomas.) Inexpediency of using breaks in paying out cables, 1508-1601; 1644-1649.
(Brett, J.W.) Angle in paying out Cagliari and Galeta cable, 1365-1367,
(Bright, Sir Charles T.) Break and machinery used for the Atlantic cable, 1199,1200, 1203, 1204, 1213-1299, 1269-1309; angle of cable in paying out, 1279; strain shown by the dynamometer, 1281-1286, 1299, 1291.
(Canning, Samuel.) Machinery for paying out cable laid by Messrs. Glass and Elliott, 1501-1505
(Clark, Latimer.) Serious defects in paying out machinery, 3525; a superior break for paying out cables, 3526; Longridge’s breaks, 3529.
(Dayman, Commander Joseph.) Paying out apparatus for Atlantic cable perfect, 3194.
(Forde, Henry Charles.) Difficulties experienced in paying out Red Sea cable, owing to machinery, 4151-4153, 4165, 4166; opinion upon paying out machinery, 4942-4245.
(Henley, W.T.) Paying out machinery used for the Ceuta and Algesiras cable, 2336-2437.
(Kell, Captain J.) Failure of Atlantic cable attributable to deficiencies in machinery, 476.
(Longridge, James A.) Paying out machinery should be rotative, 812; paying out machinery the cause of the failure of the Atlantic cable, 812; suggestions as to paying out machinery, 814-820.
(Newall, R.S.) Break used in paying out cables, 4481, 4482.
(Siemens, W.) System adopted in paying nut Red Sea cable, 132.
(Smith, Willoughby.) Effect of the raising of the stern of a vessel in paying out a cable, 868.
(West, Charles.
) Complicated machinery should be avoided as much possible, 2139, 2133.
(Woodhouse, W.H.) Machinery adapted to cable should be used, 1026, 1030, 1031, 1048.

(Bright, Sir Charles T.) Laying of, 1169-1171.

PREECE, WILLIAM HENRY, Evidence, 2612-2799.

(Canning, S.) Length and depth, 1453-1455.

(Forde, Henry Charles.) Description of the cable between Aden and Kurrachee, 4147; greatest depth, 2,000 fathoms, 4148, 4141; soundings taken previously to laying cable, 4150, 4170; difficulties experienced owing to paying out machinery, 4151-4153, 4165, 4166; records of the electrical condition of the cable during laying, 4158-4160; peculiarities observed during the laying of the cable, 4161; temperature, 4162, 4163; 4230, 4932; improvement of the insulation in paying out, 4164, 9169; condition of the cable after laying, 4154-4157; causes and nature of faults, 4215-4223; injury to gutta-percha covering by using powerful batteries, 4225-9227; control of the electrical condition chiefly under the control of the contractor, 4167; speed obtained in the longer lengths, 4205-4210.
(Gisborne Lionel.) Depths of, 6, 10; relative conductivity of copper and gutta-percha in cable, 7; words per minute, 105, 106; weight of gutta percha and copper per mile, 108; weight of, 28; greatest depth, 84.
(Mayes, William.) Length, greatest depth, and nature of the bottom of the several sections between Suez and Kurrachee, 4691-4720; the Suez and Corsire section twice broken in the anchorage, 4721-4723; Suakin and Corsire section has undergone no repairs and is still working, 4724, 4725; a fault in the section has improved, 4726-4731; a fault in the Suakin and Aden section on the Dunlak bank, 4732-4755; operations to remove the fault, 4736-4742; condition of the cable when first raised, 4743; nature of faults, 4736-4742; fault from tension in paying out, 4748-4774; cable had been laid nine months before fault appeared, 4765; cable between Kurrachee and Muscat appeared to be very tightly paid out, 4776-4784; cable when again raised showed evidence of great strain having been used in paying out, 4785-4788, 4795; injury of cable after being laid from corrosion, 4789, 4794, 4881-4886; some of the faults from defects in the gutta-percha, 4796-4799; injuries to cable from the breaking of the iron wires, 4801, 4895, 4896; cable recovered much covered with shells and sea-weed, 4802-4804, 4814, 4815, 4817-4820, 4830; arrangements adopted in undermining the cable, 4805-4813; the two sections between Corsire and Suakin and Kooria-Mooria, and Muscat only at work, 4821-4824; a fault in the Aden and Kooria cable, 4826-4829; communications made for a few days throughout the whole line from Suez to Kurrachee, 4836, 4837; faults in cable not to be attributed to high battery power, 4853-4868; cable broken several times in undermining, 4839-4850; difficulty of grappling cable, 4860-4867; thickness of cable used in deep and shallow water, 4869-4871; failure of the shore end near Aden, 4872-4874.
(Newall, R.S.) Line between Suez, Aden, and Kurrachee in working order, 4424; faults between Suakin and Aden after being laid nine months from the use of heavy battery power, 4425-4430; would use Hooper’s patent for a Red Sea cable, 4489-4491; present condition of the cable as a whole, 4535-4539.
(Siemens, W.) Testing of, 130-132; system adopted in paying out, 132; temperature during paying out on board ship and at bottom of sea; fault probably from some fissure in gutta-percha, 132; re-appearance of, 180; fault between Suakin and Aden afterwards rectified, 182, 183, 184.
(Webb, F.C.) Cause of failure, 4642-4644; rate of transmission of words, 4646-4651; opinion upon the construction and maintenance of the cable, 4660-4664; nature of contract, 4672; tight laying of the cable, 4673-4676.


RETARDATION. See Induction.

ROSS, ADMIRAL SIR JAMES C., Evidence, 3247.

SAWARD, GEORGE. Evidence, 2999-3102. Notes, descriptive of the island of Rockall, page 178; account of the late dreadful earthquake at Terceira, page 179; remarkable phenomenon near the Azores, page 180; diagram of route of the Atlantic cable, and of proposed routes by Iceland, &c.

SHAFFNER, COLONEL P., Evidence, 3886-4141. Additional evidence relative to the formation of ice upon the coast of Iceland, page 226; comparative working of the North Atlantic, and the old Atlantic telegraph projects, page 229; manipulation of the Atlantic telegraph line, page 330.

SHARPE, BENJAMIN, Evidence, 4557-4583.

(Chatterton, J.) Effect upon gutta-percha, 1146.
(Glass, R.A.) 293-298.
(Newall, R.S.) Hemp cables in the Mediterranean injured by the teredo, 4446-4448.
(Siemens, W.) Ravages upon cables, 132-140.
(Huxley, T.H.) Letter to Captain Galton relative to, page 9.

SIEMENS, C. WILLIAM, Evidence, 122-205, 3829-3835.

SILVER, HUGH ADAMS, Evidence, 2072-2108.

(Gisborne, L.) Iron covered, 116; laid in shallow water, 117.
(Newall, R.S.) Cable damaged several times by ships’ anchors, 4992; cable the same size as the Red Sea cable, 4493.
(Sharp, Benjamin.) System of longitudinal protection for the outer covering of cables, 4557-4584.
(Siemens, C.W.) Length and depth, 3829, 3830; results of examination before and after its submersion, 3833-3832; broken by an anchor, 3833, 3834; distance of fault correctly calculated, 3839-3837, 3841-3846; cable covered with iron, 3838; liable to injury from shallowness of water, 3839, 3841; mode of ascertaining the conductivity and resistance of the gutta-percha covering, 3847-3851; increase of insulation in the gutta-percha covering from pressure, 3852; insulation compared with the Gibraltar cable, 3854-3859.

SMITH, WILLOUGHBY. Evidence, 589-761. Plates referred to in Evidence, Nos. 1 and 2.

(Belcher, Captain Sir Edward.) Process of sounding at great depths, 4301-4311; great uncertainty in taking deep sea soundings, 4306; currents at the bottom of the sea, 4298-4300; greatest depths of soundings taken between Labrador and Greenland, 4314, 4315; suggestions upon sending an expedition to the north to take soundings, 4325-4327.
(Bright, Sir Charles T.) Desirability for further soundings, 1324-1327.
(Dayman, Commander J.) Modification of Lieut. Brooks’ method, 3105-3129; opinion of using a fine steel wire instead of a hempen line, 3125-3127; time occupied in taking soundings, 3130; mode of marking upon a chart, 3131, 3132; nature of bottom of sea from soundings taken between England and America, 3134-3136; temperature at bottom of sea, 3137-3154; depth of soundings and specimens of bottom of Mediterranean, 3157-3163; soundings and nature of the bottom in the Gut of Gibraltar, 3164-3172; soundings may be taken in great depths, 3172-3173; pressure upon bodies in deep water, 3155-3156; sudden decrease of depth in approaching some places, 3174-3179; peculiarity in soundings between coast of Sicily and Africa, 3180, 3181; soundings for the Atlantic cable, 3188, 3189; force of currents under water at great depths, 3211, 3212; American apparatus for ascertaining depths, 3221; no tendency in hempen log lines to untwist, 3200-3210.
(Kell, Captain J.) Necessity for careful soundings, 517, 518; Atlantic not sufficiently sounded, 519-521, 566.
(Ross, Sir James C.
) Necessary to have soundings, 3979,3390-3391.
(Shaffner, Colonel T.P.) Soundings between Labrador and Greenland, 3930-3939; and Iceland and Faroe Islands, 4007-4028, 4032-4049, 4067.
(Washington, Captain John.) Deep-sea soundings, 3655; between Rockall and Cape Farewell 3669-3671; between Ireland and Newfoundland, 3669, 3676; nature of bottom, 3674, 3675; Lieut. Maury’s line of soundings, 3695-3700; soundings in the Pacific by the United States Government, 3703-3705; no difficulty in taking soundings in 5,000 fathoms, 3735, 3736; operation of taking soundings, and nature of line used, 3736-3741, 3792-3796; absolute quiet and repose at great depths, 3762-3767; discrepancies in soundings taken in Strait of Gibraltar and in Pantelaria, 3766-3770, 3785-3790; rocky bottom and rapid currents in straits present difficulties in maintenance of cable, 3771, 3779; preference to the separate mode of taking soundings to Brooks’ plan, 3791, 3825-3828; depth of water south of banks of Newfoundland, 3798-3805; depths in which cables might be injured, 3806-3810.

(Brett, J.W.) Weight and depths of cable, 1342, 1343-1347; heavy cables to which no repairs have been required, 1410, 1411.

(Siemens, W.) A test for detecting eccentricities in conductors, 146, 151, 152.
(Smith, Willoughby.) Statical test, 723-726.

(Saward, George.) Gutta-percha covered wires liable to decay, 3002-3010; Stockholm tar a preservative to gutta-percha lines, 3011, 3012; Dover lines covered with submarine glue; 3011-3014; effect of lightning, 3090-3092; power of battery used, 3093-3090; speed of working, 3096.
(Varley, C.F.) Insulation, 2895-2897; how tested, 2898; peculiarities observed. 2930, 2901-2906; gutta-percha covered wires first used in 1849, 2901.

(Varley, C.F.) Apparatus for rendering speed of working more regular and constant, 2907, 2908; forces of interruption in working, 2909; earth currents, 2910-2911; large conductors the only means of obtaining rapid and certain communication through long lines, law of induction, reduction tables, 2915-2924, 2934; speed varies in the direct proportion of the conductibility of the wire, 2925-2923; speed of transmission of messages by the Atlantic cable, 2929-2933; proper size for the conductor of an Atlantic cable, 2935; the magneto instrument the best source of electricity for working a cable, 2936, 2937; working by battery through induction plates, 2379-2939; Rhumkorff coils, 2939, 2940; speed of cables, coiled and uncoiled the same, 2979.

(Forde, Henry Charles.) Not much advantage as a covering unless to preserve the wires from rust, 4236-4241.
(Saward, G.) A covering for telegraph wires, 3011-3014, 3017.

(Brett, J.W.) Unadvisability to leave selection to contractor, 1406-1409; durability, 1436, 1438.
(Bright, Sir Charles T.) Cables should be paid out over the stern of vessels properly constructed, 1293-1296; effect of pressure in deep water, 1302‑1306; failures owing to contractors, 1307, 1308; permanence of deep sea cables, 1323; instances of fracture when paying out at an angle, 1328-1333.
(Canning, Samuel.) Cables laid by Messrs. Glass and Elliot now in successful working, 1455-1458; cost of repairs small, 1459-1460; number of conducting wires, 1463; outer covering composed of solid inns wires, 1464; heavy cables for shoal water, 1465; machinery for paying out, 1501-1505; preference to paying out a heavy cable to a light one, 1506-1508; preference of laying cables taut, 1512; allowance of slack in paying out, 1513-1516; twisting of cables in paying out, 1522-1527; impracticability of testing cables by pressure in water at manufactory, 1538-1541; pressure of water in deep sea not injurious, 1541; insulation, 1568-1581; Allan’s system of cables, 1582-1664.
(Clark, Latimer.) Serious defects in paying-out machinery, 3525; a superior break for paying out cables, 3596; Longridge’s breaks, 3529; no danger from currents in paying out either light or heavy cables, 3530-3533; longitudinal motion of a cable in water, 3531; light cables in deep water better than solid iron cables, 3534-3535; Gibraltar cable suitable for deep water,3536, 3538; experience against a purely hempen cable, 3537-3539; objection to lateral iron wires outside a cable, 3540; weight of cables for shore ends, 3546, 3547; twisting or untwisting of a cable in sinking through the water, 3551-3557; injury to cables from rust, and means adopted to prevent rust, 3573-3574; effect of temperature, 3624; effect of different thicknesses of coatings of submarine cables, 3695-3628; effect of false currents in coiled cables, 3629.
(Forde, Henry Charles.) Not desirable to use hemp covered cables in depths varying from 300 to 1,000 fathoms 4178, 4179; iron covering desirable to strengthen cable in laying, 4180, 4184-4192; protection of iron wires from oxidation, 4181-4183; no injury from the spiral form of the outer covering, 4200; stretching of the outer covering, 4201-4205; wires hitherto covered with too few coatings of gutta-percha, and not sufficiently tested, 4246-4256.
(Gisborne, Lionel.) Insulation affected by heat, 15-17; paying-out machinery, 24-26; paying out little affected by the pitching of the vessel, 27; angle formed in paying out, 29-31, 94-96; strain estimated by the angle, 32; measurement of strain in paying into deep water, 33, 36; inertia of machinery in paying out into great depths, 35; safety of laying in almost any depth of water, 69; permanency in deep water, 70; pressure in deep water, 71; form and specific gravity for laying at depths of 2¼ miles, 91; experiments upon, 91-93; one-half the greatest amount of strain safely approached in paying out, 109-104; contracts with manufacturers to lay at their own risk, 110-113; cables should not be left to choice of contractor, 119; contracts, 120-121; Rowett’s cable, 54.
(Glass, R.A.) Outer covering should be of hemp, saturated with a preservative mixture, 260, 261; the outer coating should be of iron wires proportioned to the depth and the nature of the bottom, 262, 263; effect of abrasion upon the outer wire, 270, 271, 275; iron wires covered to prevent rust, 276, 277; importance of greater perfection in manufacture of long cables, 285-287; deep sea cables, 299; form of covering, 300; 3,000 fathoms not too deep for a cable, 317-329; difficulties in laying long lines,323-324; contracts for cables, 325-340, 347-349; impossibility of testing a cable during its manufacture by pressure, 346; failure generally attributable to their being of too slight a character, 366; construction should have reference to paying out, 385-388, 393; should be perfectly coiled on board, 392; specific gravity to the depth, 396; no strain should, if possible, be put on the conductors, 402; Mr. Gisborne’s rule for designing a deep sea cable, 407-410.
(Henley, W.) Hemp and iron as a covering instead of all iron, 2372, 2373.
(Jenkin, Fleeming.) Influences of the dimensions of covering on insulation, 2828, 2834; influence of temperature, 2826-2828; methods of testing conductors and insulators, 2835-2839; resistance of copper conductors, 2840-2844; charge of cables directly as the length, 2846-2851; retardation of signals through long cables, 2833-2871; specific gravity of cables for deep water, 2872-2985; electrical objection to Mr. Allan’s cable, 2886; large surface of conductor would increase the charge, 2888; preference to a thick copper wire with a thicker covering of gutta-percha, 2880.
(Kell, Captain. J.) Practicability of laying in deep water, 451, 452, 517 559, 561; relative properties of uncoiling, 462-464; covering with hemp, 465, 466; liability of strand cables in case of breaking to injure the gutta-percha, 471; necessity for careful soundings, 517, 518; Atlantic not sufficiently sounded, 519-521, 566; adaptation of specific gravity of cables to depth, 523; angle at which a cable may be paid out, 525-527; picking up of cables, 531-558.
(Longridge, James.) Form of cable suitable for deep and shallow water, 765-769; lighter cable without iron covering for deep water, 769; the whole metallic substance placed inside the cable and laid in the direction of its axis, 769, 770, 778-806; no difficulty in coiling, 771-774; no diminution of the conducting power of the cable from contact of copper and steel wires, 775-777; retardation in long cables caused by the smallness of the conductors, 776; spiral lay of a cable causes a tendency to untwist in paying out, 778-805; paying out machinery should not be rotative, 812; cause of the failure of the Atlantic cable was the paying-out machinery, 812; suggestions as to the paying-out machinery, 814-820; duration of cables in deep and shallow water, 821-822; light cables may be laid with the greatest case, 823-826; cables should be completely tested before laying, 820 -832.
(Mayes, William.) Cables without iron covering incapable of being raised, 4889; cables should be of such strength as to be capable of being repaired, 4890; hemp covered cables would not offer so much facility for recovering as iron covered, 4900, 4901.
(Newall, R.S.) Weight is not necessary or desirable in a cable unless near the shore, 4415; not more risk in laying a heavy cable than a light one, 4416, 4152; an unnecessary expense to lay an iron cable to America, 4417; cables after reaching the bottom comparatively safe, 4418; worse than useless covering with iron except in shallow water, 4453; preference to embed the steel wires, when used for strength, in vulcanized india-rubber, 4454; would use india-rubber for protecting the copper wire and vulcanized india-rubber for protecting the steel wire, 4468; such a cable would be far more perfect for deep water than any yet seen, 4477, 4551; steel wires should be insulated to prevent induction, 4553-4556; cables should be in one length and without joints, 4554; cables should be subjected to a very severe test before sending them out, 4488; insulated wires should be tested to the strength they are intended to bear, 4547-4550; spiral form of iron covered cables perfect, 4520-4595; difficulty in getting a uniform strain upon wires laid longitudinally, 4525; depth in which cables have been raised, 4477, 4478, 4504; cables not injured by coral, 4479; not a good plan to contract for cables at, the risk of the contractor, 4541-4546.
(Preece, William Henry.) Chalk or sand bed preferred for a submarine cable, 2663, 2664; influence of tides at great depths, 2673-2675; corrosion of the iron coatings of cables, 2671, 2672, 2676-2687; necessity of coating cables with some asphalting process, 2723-2738; difficulties in picking up broken cables, 2741-2750.
(Saward, George.) Gutta-percha a suitable covering, 3014; durability of deep sea cables, 3056-3058; desirability of manufacturing during the winter and submerging before the heat of summer, 3102; opinion as to the best arrangements and form of contracts, 3075-3077.
(Siemens, C.W.) Return currents in badly insulated wires, 154, 155; faults remedied by passing positive currents of electricity, 156; oxidization of wire by passing positive currents, 156, 161; deep water favourable to cables, 162; desirability of divesting of underground lines, 170; underground lines not so safe as submarine, 170, 171; retardation of currents of electricity increased with increased length, 172-174; formulae for expression of retardation of currents, 198. Working by reversed currents the safest, 3870-3879; improvement in the hemp serving to prevent rusting of the iron wires, 3882, 3883; best form for deep sea cables, 3884.
(Smith, Willoughby.) Mode of testing at gutta-percha works, 722; may be laid in any reasonable depth, 730, 731; difficulty in manufacturing joints, 748-751; testing joints, 752-754; should be dried before covered with tar, 756-761; collodion and asphalte as an outside covering, 848-851; testing by pressure and extensile force, 852-856; effect of the raising of the stern of a vessel in paying out, 868.
(Varley, C.F.) Facility of picking up cables in certain depths, 2984, 2985; means of finding position of fault without cutting cable, 2985-9988; use of sand batteries discontinued, 2994-2997; Daniell’s battery used in testing, 2998.
(Webb, F.C.) Prefers a single cable with one wire, 4591; use of buoys in laying and repairing cables, 4587, 4588, 4615-4618; recovery of cables by grappling, 4619‑4621; greatest depth at which a cable could be wilfully destroyed, 4622-4623; importance of testing cables under water, 4652, 4654; impossible to test under water to the full pressure, 4653; proper precautions have not been taken for the maintenance of cables, 4655, 4656; cause of failure of submarine telegraphs owing to want of engineering skill in persons employed, 4626, 4630; cables laid by contractors should be required to be maintained for a long period, 4627-4634; contracts as at present made not adapted to meet the several contingencies, 4665, 4672; durability of the covering of cables after laid in the sea, 4677-4081; suggestion to electrotype the outside wires with copper, 4680.
(West, Charles.) Deep sea cables should not be covered with iron at all, 2131; complicated machinery should be avoided as much as possible, 2132, 2133; origins of submarine cables, 3228-3246,
(Window, Frederic William.) Ocean cables should be substantially made, 217; influence of pressure at great depths, 241.
(Woodhouse, W.H.) Decrease of specific gravity not a material advantage, 955; light cables in some instances disadvantageous in laying, 956-960; a light cable for the Atlantic would not be advantageous, 962-965; machinery adapted to cable should be used for paying out, 1026, 1030, 1031, 1048.

(Belcher, Captain Sir Edward.) Feasibility of laying and maintaining a cable by the route of Iceland, Labrador, and Greenland, 4285; prefers the laying of the cable via the Shetlands and the Faroe Islands, 4258-4261; 4286-4290; tides and whirlpools off the Faroe Islands, 4261, 4262; tides not likely to injure a cable, 4263; tides a question to be determined, 4317-4319; bottom of sea on the west side of Greenland composed of mud, 4285; slimy nature of mud at 130 fathoms, 4264; floe ice and bergs on the east side of Greenland, 4264-4268; cable should be carried across Greenland as a subterranean line and then run across to Labrador, 4277; all the lines should be run from the western to the eastern stations, 4277; ridge between Labrador and Greenland would protect a cable laid south of it from icebergs, 4277-4281, 4313; no ocean currents between Labrador and Greenland that would affect a cable, 4397; little to be fretted from ice between Scotland and Greenland, 4312; proper period for laying a cable, 4320, 4321; possibility of employing the colonists in Greenland and Labrador in keeping up stations, 4322-4324; route through Asia to America by the Alutian Islands would be found difficult, 4292; suggestion of laying a telegraph line by the Cape de Verd Islands, 4329.
(Dayman, Commander Joseph.) Opinion as to laying a cable by Iceland, Greenland, and Labrador, 3213, 3214, 3220, 3222-3229.
(Fitzroy, Admiral R., F.R.S.) A line by Rockall bank, and the banks to the southward of Iceland, and to the southward of Greenland and the offing of Labrador and Greenland, the best between England and America, 3467, 3476-3481; would recommend a single copper wire of large size, covered with a vitrified substance, and used in moderate lengths, 3476, 3499-3507; outer covering should be of copper, 3509-3516.
(Ross, Sir James.) Difficulty in laying an Atlantic cable by the Faroe Islands and Iceland, owing to the strong tides and rocks, 3249, 3373, 3375, 3382-3384; a cable liable to be injured by drift ice on the south shore of Iceland, 3254-3259; the east coast of Greenland is inaccessible only on account of the floe ice, 3956, 3374; would not recommend a cable being laid to Iceland, 3260; would recommend a cable being laid from Rockall to Greenland, 3260-3264, 3375; danger in laying a cable on the Labrador coast, 3267, 3380, 3381; the coast of Greenland would he a very difficult route, 3275, 3276; necessary to have soundings, 3279, 3390-3393; supposed depth between Rockall and Cape Farewell, 3280; nature of the Spitzbergen current, 3982-3287, 3310, 3346, 3347; depth of fiords on the coast of Labrador, 3288, 3301-3304; icebergs, floe ice, packed ice, 3291-3298; depth at which a cable would be safe, 3299, 3303; spurs along the south-west coast of Greenland not probable, 3332, 3334; general character of the south-west of Greenland bluff, precipitous, and rocky, 3340-3344; cables at 150 fathoms are free from action of tides, 3348; an Atlantic cable might possibly be laid from Rockall to Cape Farewell and thence to Hamilton Inlet, 3387, 3388; difficulties much greater than by a direct course to Newfoundland, 3389, 3399, 3400.
(Saward, George). Views as to the best route, 3078; the Greenland route hazardous from ice and volcanoes, 3079-3084; route from Falmouth to Halifax, 3084-3086; route across Russia and Behrings Strait, 3088.
(Shaffner, Colonel, T.P.) Concession from the Danish Government for Greenland, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands, 3889-3896; nature of agreement of Danish Government with Sir John MacNeil, 3897-3899; caution money required by the Danish Government, 3900-3904; examination of route, 3905; cable to be laid from Hamilton’s Inlet, 3907; rights of the Atlantic Telegraph Company to Hamilton’s Inlet, 3907-3913; depth and nature of bottom of Hamilton’s Inlet, 3915, 3919, 4061-4066; not difficult to maintain a line from Hamilton’s Inlet, to join Canadian lines, 3990-3923, 4114-4119; cable to be laid to somewhere near Julianshaab, 3928-3929, 3953-3957; soundings show bottom of sea between Labrador and Greenland, to be similar to that between Ireland and Newfoundland, 3950-3939; depth, 3930; currents off Cape Desolation, 3910, 3941; no difficulty from icebergs or floe ice in laying a cable with a steam vessel on the coast of Greenland, 3949-3952; line to be carried across Greenland,3958-3963; description of the interior, 3959-3961; met with no ice on the east coast, 3963-3969, 3978-3980, 4050-4057; east coast may be approached with a steam vessel at certain seasons, 3971-3973; current round the coast, 3974-3977; deep water and muddy bottom, with sandy shore on the east coast of Greenland, 3981-3991; same character of bottom on coast of Iceland, 3939; cable to be landed somewhere near Reikiavig, 3992-3993; Bay of Reikiavig never frozen over, 3994-3996; line to be carried over land to Portland, 3099, 4000, 4075, 4076; bottom of sea near Portland sandy, 4001; depth between Greenland and Labrador, 4025; soundings between Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, and Faroe Islands, 4007-4028, 4032-4049, 4067; Spitzbergen current, 4058-4061; no difficulty in landing a cable on the Faroe islands, 4071-4073, 4089-4093; no difficulty from volcanic agency on the coast of Iceland, 4074; no ice off Portland at any season, 4077-4087; proposition of taking cable from Faroe islands to Scotland, 4094; opinion in favour of a light cable with protected ends, 4103-4104; current between Greenland and Iceland quite shallow, 4104-4112; reasons for supporting the route, 4120; length of longest portion of line 600 miles, 4121-4123; greatest length for telegraph commercially available, 4125-4138; a line through Asiatic Russia cannot be made commercially, 4139-4141.
(Washington, Captain J.) Route from Scotland by Faroe islands, Icelands, Greenland, and Labrador impracticable, 3656-3668, 3853; depths not known, soundings should be taken, 3668, 3815-3858; the currents not the difficulty, 3814; Atlantic Telegraph Company’s route the bottom of Ooze, 3674; nature of sudden dip off coast of Ireland, 3676-3689, 3693-3695; not necessary to ascertain more accurately the nature of the bottom, 3690-3699; opinion of a southern route by Cape Finisterre, the Canary Islands, Cape de Verde Islands, and St. Pauls, to Northern Coast of South America, 3706-3734; no soundings taken beyond Cape St. Vincent, 3710; distances between points, 3711, 3744; possible impediments from volcanic islands, 3719, 3720; soundings between the Canary islands and Cape de Verde islands, 3715; soundings between England and the Azores and North America, 3731-3733; volcanic nature of the Azores, Teneriffe, and Cape de Verde Islands, 3742, 3745-3746; Atlantic Telegraph Company’s route the best, 3747.
(Young, Allen.) No ice comes into the Harbour of Fredericshaab, 3412; bottom of harbour mud and rocky bottom in sea outside, 3413-3415; cable might be laid safely in the harbour, 3424; description of pack outside the harbour, 3424-3438; no difficulty in landing a cable on the south of Greenland, except from winds, 3439, 3441; would propose to start from the coast of Greenland and go toward Iceland, 3442, 3442; season of year for laying a cable between Labrador and Greenland, 3445-3459; pack ice off the south coast of Greenland, 3453-3464.

(Kell, Captain J.) Variation at depths, and with the latitude, 585-588.
(Dayman, Commander J.) Temperature at bottom of sea, 3117-3154
(Admiral Fitzroy.) Instrument used, 3481-3487; observations by Commander Dayman, 3488-3489; specific gravity and temperature, 3489-3492.
(Sir James Boss.) Temperature of the sea in northern latitudes, 3351-3359; Results of experiments in southern regions, 3360-3372.

THOMSON, WILLIAM, LL.D., F.R.S., Evidence, 2447-2611. Appendix No. 1. Description of diagrams (see plates 1, 2, and 3 attached) referred to in evidence, page 125. Appendix No. 2. Account of the accident, given in writing to Captain Preedy, R.N., at sea, during the laying of the cable, page 126. Appendix No. 3. Formula and table referred to in answer to question 2594, page 126.

VARLEY, CROMWELL FLEETWOOD, Evidence, 2891-2998. Law of induction in telegraph conductors, page 153; Varley’s reduction table, page 154; report on the state of the Atlantic cable, page 160.

(Henley, W.T.) Difference in transmission in coiled and uncoiled lines, 2413-2432.
(Thomson, W., LL.D.) Speed of transmission of signals, 2452-2454, 2548-2550; effect of resistance coils on the speed, 2610, 2611.
(Hughes, David Edward.) Experiments to increase the speed, 1973; large conductor superior as regards speed, 1976-1978; results of speed obtained through different lengths of cables, 1977, 2004-2111; increase of conductor does not increase largely the inductive effect, 1978; speed obtained by induction coils and Daniell’s battery same as stated by Mr. Whitehouse, 1980; retardation not due so much to induction as to charge and discharge, 1987-1989; speed independent of battery power used under certain circumstances, 1991-1993; believes the current to be instantaneous, 1994-1995; charge of cable in proportions to the resistance of the wire, 2001; time required to charge a cable to its maximum, 2001-2003; speed with the battery the same as with the inductive coil, 2012; records made by Hughes’ patent printing instrument, 2021-2025; comparisons of records made with Morse’s system, 2025-2026.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) Uniformity under like conditions, 1725; voltaic current difficult to use and slower than the magneto electric, 1726-1730; experiments upon magneto-electric currents, 1731-1739; magneto currents 2½ times as rapid as voltaic, 1740; no perceptible alteration in speed by increasing cells of battery, 1741, 1742; result of using a large number of cells, 1743-1746; induction coil current, 1747-1751; experiments with Magnetic Company’s gutta-percha subterranean wires, 1752-1773; experiments between Dublin and London, 1774-1777; speed of reversals, 1778; difference of speed between transmission of reversals at equal periods and of signals requiring unequal times, 1779, 1750; experiments corroborated by subsequent ones upon the Atlantic cable, 1781; speed of reversals in the Atlantic cable, 1782-1800; speed with Daniell’s battery, 1801-1811; difference of speed at Keyham by inductive coils and Daniell’s battery, 1812-1814; experiments with the Magnetic Company’s wires proved that an Atlantic cable could be worked, 1815, 1816; responsibility for the electrical conditions of the Atlantic cable, 1819; size of conductor for overcoming retardation; 1820-1821, 1831-1835; experiments on the effect of surface induction, 1822-1830; difference between an induction coil and a battery with respect to tension, 1921-1927; effect of the heating power of Daniell’s battery on gutta-percha, 1930; speed obtained by Daniell’s, 1931-1938
(Newall, R.S.) Speed of working the Varna and Balaklava line, 4486, 4487.

VULCANITE. See also India-rubber and Gutta Percha, and Hooper’s Patent.
(Newall, R.S.) Endurance of vulcanized india-rubber in sea water, 4532, 4533.
(Whitehouse, Wildman.) The best insulating material, 1955; component parts, 1959; action of the copper nay be avoided by tinning the wires, 1960; flexibility, 1963; vulcanite the most perfect insulator, 2371; properties of, 3594-3601.

WALKER, CHARLES VINCENT, Evidence, 2210-2310. Notes to evidence, (A), on the mode by which the leakages of the Atlantic cable were determined, page 97; (B) charging capacities of various cables, page 100. Report of investigation into the conditions relative to time retardation of signals in the Atlantic cable, page 101.


WEBB, FREDERICK CHARLES, Evidence, 4585-4681. Letter to Captain Galton submitting further remarks on the subject of deep sea cable coverings, page 272.


WEST, CHARLES, Evidence, 2110-2133, 3228-3246.

WHITEHOUSE, WILDMAN, Evidence, 1713-1970.

WINDOW, FREDERICK RICHARD, Evidence, 206-245. Opinions upon ocean and ordinary submarine telegraphy, 206, 208; laying of inferior cables the cause of greater expenditure in the end, 209-212; causes of the loss of ocean cables, 212-216; length of cables lost to May 1858, 216.

WOODHOUSE, WILLIAM HENRY. Evidence, 884-1048.

WRAY, LEONARD, Evidence, 1165-1712.

(Fuller, John.) Opinion upon, 4374, 4382; composition principally of india-rubber, 4378; insulation diminishes the less the quantity of india rubber used, 4331; liability to shrink, 4381, 4382.
(Glass, R.A.) 350-355. System of insulation and results of tests applied by Mr. Varley, 1665-1667; impermeability of material, 1668, 1669; chemical indestructibility and resistance to atmosphere, 1673; can be put on wires by a die in two coats, 1674, 1675; substances composing, and nature of compound, 1679-1689, 1699; plastic temperature, 1693; conductibility of aluminum, 1693-1694; price, 1695; useless for external covering, 1696; properties as a conductor, 1697, 1698; price as compared with gutta-percha, 1701, 1702; application of material over gutta-percha, 1705-1709; experiments upon, 1710, 1711; inductive capacity, 1712.
(Siemens, W.) India-rubber and other materials, 200; decidedly superior in inductive capacity to gutta-percha, 3830; possesses a decided advantage over gutta-percha, 3884, 3885.
(Varley, C.F.) Comparison with gutta-percha, 2959-2964; durability, 2971.

XYLOPHAGA. See Shell Fish and Worms.

YOUNG, ALLEN, Esq., Evidence, 3410-3466. Letter to Captain Galton expressing the possibility of laying a cable from the south coast of Greenland, page 195.

Return to the Atlantic Cables index page

Last revised: 10 August, 2016

Return to Atlantic Cable main page

Search all pages on the Atlantic Cable site:

Research Material Needed

The Atlantic Cable website is non-commercial, and its mission is to make available on line as much information as possible.

You can help - if you have cable material, old or new, please contact me. Cable samples, instruments, documents, brochures, souvenir books, photographs, family stories, all are valuable to researchers and historians.

If you have any cable-related items that you could photograph, copy, scan, loan, or sell, please email me: [email protected]

—Bill Burns, publisher and webmaster: