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History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network

Messages Carried by the 1858 Atlantic Telegraph Cable

Introduction: The 1858 cable is reported as having worked only intermittently, and for a short period of time, before failing altogether. In the Minutes of Evidence of the official inquiry into the failure of the cable, published in 1861, Tal Shaffner presented as part of his testimony (pages 230-237) a complete transcript of the “Manipulation of the Atlantic Telegraph Line, from August 10th to the 1st of September inclusive”. This transcript was taken from the detailed logs of all messages kept at both ends of the cable, in Valentia and in Newfoundland, and showed the many difficulties encountered in making the transmissions. But it also showed that when the cable was working, messages could be sent with reasonable accuracy, although at very slow rates.

Shaffner’s intent in presenting this evidence was to discredit the cable, as for many years he had been proposing an alternative route (see this article by Steven Roberts for details of Shaffner’s Northern Line). His testimony to the committee includes this statement: “I produce the whole working of that line as the best evidence in substantiation of my opinion, that a circuit of that length cannot be made commercial.”

Although technically feasible, Shaffner’s Northern Line had no support from the powerful British telegraph interests, and, despite his negative report to the 1858 committee, the eventual success of the 1866 Atlantic cable proved that long lines could indeed be successfully worked at commercial speeds. But even Shaffner’s evidence intended to discredit the 1858 cable instead showed its potential value, as follows:

Included in the transcript of the 22nd and 23rd days of the cable’s operation, just before it failed, are messages from the British Government to the General Officers of the Sixty-second and Thirty-ninth regiments, stationed in Canada, that they were not to return to England. This was because the crisis in India had just been resolved, and the troops were no longer needed. As the note added by the editor of the report indicates, this saved the Government fifty thousand pounds ($250,000 at the time).

These important messages are shown first, followed by a summary of all the messages between August 13th and September 1st.

For an account of the landing of the cable in Newfoundland and the events leading up to the first official message, see the page on the 1858 Atlantic Telegraph Company Station: Bay Bulls Arm, Newfoundland.

—Bill Burns
Messages concerning the movement of British troops from Canada

TWENTY-SECOND DAY.
August 31, 1858.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
Sent 1.30 P.M.—“Can you read? We have two Government messages. Will you take? Reply direct.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
Sent 1.37 P.M.—“Try, but send.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
Sent 3.41 P.M.—“The Military Secretary to Commander-in-Chief, Horse Guards, London. To General Trollope, Halifax, Nova Scotia:— The Sixty-second Regiment is not to return to England.”

[This message and that which will be found further on in regard to the Thirty-ninth Regiment, saved to the British Government the sum of fifty thousand pounds (250,000 dollars), by avoiding the shipment and transportation of troops.]

Newfoundland to Valentia.
Sent—“This received:—The Military Secretary to Commander-in-Chief, Horse Guards, London.”
Sent—“‘Trollope,’ understand. Go on after Scotia.”
Sent—“Is it finished after ‘England?’ ”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
Sent 4 P.M.—“Yes. Now take another. Are you ready?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
Sent 4.5 P.M.—“Yes, send.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
Sent 9.3 P.M.—“The Military Secretary to Commander-in-Chief, Horse Guards, to General Officer commanding, Montreal, Canada:—The Thirty-ninth Regiment is not to return to England.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
Sent—“I want you to repeat ‘Canada.’”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
Sent 10.5 P.M.—“Can’t read. Try‘Daniel’s.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
Sent 12 P.M.—“Repeat from ‘Canada’ to ‘return.’”

TWENTY-THIRD DAY.
September 1, 1858.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
Sent 12.20 A.M.—“Canada:—The Thirty-ninth Regiment is not to return.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
Sent 12.28 A.M.—“Understand. Will you take a service?”

Messages transmitted on the 1858 Atlantic Cable

For a full transcript of all messages sent through the 1858 cable, see Tal Shaffner’s testimony before the Joint Committee inquiry on 14 March 1860. He introduced the message transcript as follows:

The old Atlantic line was 2,050 miles long, in one continuous circuit—the longest in the world. It was laid on the 5th of August 1858, and, at the time, it was announced as a success. Herewith I give the working of that line from the 10th of August to the 1st of September inclusive. From the 5th to the 10th of August is allowed for the perfection or arrangement of the apparatuses at the respective stations. The correctness of the working herewith given has been evidenced before the United States Consul in London, by one of the electrical staff of the Company that was in Newfoundland, and by one of the staff that was in Ireland.

In August 1858 William Thomson's assistant James Burn Russell was at Valentia working with the cable technicians as they attempted to communicate with Newfoundland. In his journal of the period Russell reports that following the transmission of test signals from Ireland to Newfoundland on August 10th, the first signals were received from Newfoundland. As Russell's transcript of the log from Valentia records it, this interchange occurred between 12.24 AM and 2.28 AM in Ireland, and it would still have been August 9th in Newfoundland.

The following summary of the 1858 messages is taken from George Prescott’s 1866 book "History, theory, and practice of the electric telegraph", and is not as comprehensive as Shaffner’s full transcript.

Introduction

As there has been considerable scepticism manifested in regard to the actual transmission of communications through the Atlantic Cable, we have thought it advisable to present the following incontestable proofs of the fact. They consist of an abstract of the diaries kept at Newfoundland and Valentia, in which are recorded all the messages and conversations which passed through the cable during the period of its operation.

In these messages we have a complete history of the cable,—a history of which it is itself the narrator,—from the day in which it began to speak intelligibly, up to that on which it became silent.

It is the opinion of many, well qualified to judge, that the failure of the cable was owing to the bungling and mismanagement of both the engineers and electricians of the company who had charge of it; for it was owing to their negligence, in the first place, that the defects were produced in the insulation.

The first complete message in form received at Valentia from Newfoundland, through the Atlantic Cable, was on August 12, at 5.35 P.M., as follows:—
“Laws, Whitehouse received five minutes signal. Coil signals too weak work relay. Try drive slow and regular. I have put intermediate pulley. Reply by coils.”

Fourth day, August 13

At 12.38 A.M., Newfoundland asks Valentia to “Send word Atlantic.” Valentia responds, “Atlantic.” This was the first word read in Newfoundland which came through the cable. During the day some additional intelligible signals were received.

August 14

At 1.53 A.M., Valentia sends to Newfoundland, “Send faster.” These were the first words recorded in Newfoundland, and the manner in which the record was made is seen by Newfoundland’s reply to Valentia, sent 2.55 A.M. “Understand. Send faster. Now try message. We get your signals on delicate detector by tapping and marking the paper with pencil, for the time the needle is held over on either side.”

At 10.20 P.M., after much difficulty in transmitting intelligible signals, Valentia received the following from Newfoundland. “Saward,—E. M. Archibald, New York, telegraphs, ‘Instructed by Honorable Directors Atlantic Telegraph Company, and Directors New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Company, to state that unexplained delay injures interests both companies! I replied, — ‘Cause not passing messages,—that instruments require great care and adjustment. Doing fast possible. You should not look on cable as on ordinary short line, as we encounter many little difficulties, but think all soon overcome. ‘De Sauty.”

August 15.

Scarcely any intelligible signals received either way.

August 16.

Some signals passed intelligibly each way to 11.12 A.M., when Valentia sent the following despatch to Newfoundland, which was correctly received:—
“Directors of Atlantic Telegraph Company, Great Britain, to Directors in America. Europe and America are united by telegraph. Glory to God in the highest; on earth peace, good-will towards men.”

Newfoundland responded to Valentia:—" “Directors:—All right. Will you receive one?”

At 4.15 P.M., Valentia commenced sending the Queen’s message, but at 6.29 P.M., after sending as far as "greatest interest," the operator wrote, “Wait repairs to cable.” And it was in consequence of his making this interruption, without signifying that the despatch was not finished, that the unfortunate error took place of forwarding that communication before completion. The Queen’s message was not completely finished until 6.48 A.M. of the 17th of August. During that time the repetitions in answer to questions from Newfoundland were very much embarrassed, probably by earth currents. It was raining very hard in Newfoundland during the whole time.

THE QUEEN’S MESSAGE.
“The Queen desires to congratulate the President upon the successful completion of this great international work, in which the Queen has taken the greatest interest. The Queen is convinced the President will join with her in fervently hoping that the electric cable which now connects Great Britain with the United States will prove an additional link between the two nations, whose friendship is founded upon their common interest and reciprocal esteem. The Queen has much pleasure in thus directly communicating with the President, and in renewing to him her best wishes for the prosperity of the United States.”

At 10.10 A.M., August 17, Newfoundland sent the following despatch:—
“Directors Atlantic Telegraph Company:—Entered Trinity Bay, noon, fourth. Landed cable at six, Thursday morning; Ship at once to St. John’s two miles shore cable, with end ready for splicing. When was cable landed at Valentia? Answer by telegraph, and forward my letters to New York.
CYRUS W. FIELD.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Acknowledged. Go on.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Have you more? Always give the signal ‘Cleared out’when you finish.”
“Saward to Whitehouse:—Mr. Cunard wishes telegraph McIver, Europa collision Arabia. Put into St. Johns. No lives lost. Will you do it? Stay anxiety, non-arrival.
DE SAUTY.”

After the transmission of this despatch, which Valentia received with the loss of but two letters in the address, Newfoundland was unable to receive anything during the remainder of the day.

August 18.

Notwithstanding both stations made every exertion to restore communication by alternately sending and putting in instruments to receive, nothing more was read at Valentia, and not one word in Newfoundland during the whole day. It is proper to state, however, that from 6.40 A.M. until 9.08 P.M., operations which took place at Valentia prevented the possibility of transmission or reception. From 6.40 till noon, Mr. Canning was engaged in lifting the cable in the harbor. From noon until 1.30 P.M., efforts were made to communicate, and from this time till 9.08 P.M. operations obstructed electrical working.

August 19.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“See to adjustment. Can you receive President’s message? Been here since yesterday.” “We can’t read.” “Currents too weak to read.” “Very good currents, but can’t read. Send C’s.”

Valentia to Newfoundland. “C. C. C. Faster.” (This in answer to Newfoundland’s request to send C’s for adjustment.)
“Send message fast.” (These words came in very good signals. The deflections on galvanometer very strong.)

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Have you received message for Mclver? Send acknowledgment.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“No.”

Newfoundland to Valentia. “D. C. Mclver, Liverpool:—Arabia in collision with Europa, Cape Race, Saturday. Arabia on her way. Head slightly injured. Europa lost bowsprit, cutwater; stern sprung. Will remain in St. John’s, Newfoundland, ten days from sixteenth. Persia calls at St. John’s for mails and passengers. No loss of life or limb. CUNARD.”
“New York, August 17.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Cunard. All right. Go on.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
THE PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE.
“Washington City. To Her Majesty, Victoria, Queen of Great Britain:—The President cordially reciprocates the congratulations of Her Majesty, the Queen, on the success of this great international enterprise, accomplished by the science, skill, and indomitable energy of the two countries. It is a triumph more glorious, because far more useful to mankind, than ever was won by conqueror on the field of battle. May the Atlantic Telegraph, under the blessings of Heaven, prove to be a bond of perpetual peace and friendship between the kindred nations, and an instrument designed by Divine Providence to diffuse religion, civilization, liberty, and law throughout the world. In this view will not all the nations of Christendom spontaneously unite in the declaration, that it shall be forever neutral, and that its communications shall be held sacred in passing to the place of their destination, even in the midst of hostilities?
JAMES BUCHANAN.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“President’s all right.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Your current much stronger; but cannot read your signals. Repeat.”  “Received. Send a few words.”  “Your currents very weak. Repeat.” 

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“How now,—can you read?”

Newfoundland to Valentia..
“Understand. Better than ever. Please always commence by attack and give final signals, as we receive on galvanometer. Relay won’t work.”
“To Whitehouse. Please send large circular galvanometer.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Can you take message for Field?”
(At 8 P.M., Valentia had finished message to Mr. Field. Currents were strong, but very irregular, and only the last five words were readable. This was the message commencing  “Directors have just met.”)

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Strength of your current constantly varies. Send Field’s message.” “Repeat all from beginning to ‘tariff.’” “You should never send more than a dozen words at a time in long messages. Repeat all of last message before ‘tariff.’” “Can’t read. Send dots and dashes.” “After ‘can you.’”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“How now?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Better. Repeat message to Field.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Try read on galvanometer.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes. Repeat Field’s message.” "All to word ‘the.’” “Understand after « met.’”

(The last ten messages refer to the following message to Mr. Field, which, although commenced at 3.55 P.M. on the 19th, was not finished until 1.45 A.M. of the 20th.)

August 20.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Now from Valentia to ‘tariff.’” “End. Understand.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“C.W. Field, Newfoundland. August 17, 3 P.M.:— The directors have just met. They heartily congratulate you on success. Agamemnon anchored at Valentia at 6 A.M. on Thursday, August 5. We are just on the point of chartering a ship to lay shore-end. No time will be lost in sending them out. All your letters have been posted to New York. Please write to me fully about tariff and other working arrangements.”
(This message was repeated from Newfoundland to Valentia to show that it was understood.)
“Can we send faster?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“ Yes. I have two messages since morning. Can I send one?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“ Send faster.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“ How do you receive now?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Splendid on Thomson’s galvanometer, and print on Morse key. How do you?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“We work with Morse key and detector. "Will you take message?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We can’t unless on Company’s service.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“New York, August 18. Directors of Atlantic Telegraph Company, London:—The Directors of New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Company desire to express to the Directors of the Atlantic Telegraph Company their joy and gratitude for facilities and privileges on coming into closer union and fellowship with them and our fellow-men throughout the world. May the success which has crowned our labors secure to the nations of the earth a perpetual bond of peace and good fellowship.
PETER COOPER, President.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Directors all right.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“New York, 18. Directors Atlantic Telegraph Company London:—Niagara arrived to-day. All well Full reports by mail. I drew on you, from St. Johns, at three days’sight, £ 750 sterling, to pay laborers on Niagara. Great rejoicing all over country successful laying cable. Please request Admiralty to permit the Gorgon, Captain Dayman, accompany Niagara New York.
C.W. FIELD.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Received acknowledgment of message, Field to Directors.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“To Whitehouse:—Please send out a large circular galvanometer and another relay or two as soon as possible.
DE SAUTY.”
“If you have anything, go on.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Bartholomew to De Sauty:—Whitehouse in London. Your message about galvanometer gone there.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Cleared out.”

The Newfoundland diary had in it the ’following words:—
“First-rate signals from Valentia this morning.” This was the first time the cleared-out signal was given by both stations at same time. All communications had been accurately got off to their destinations from both sides of the Atlantic. The operators then spent two or three hours in chatting, during which Newfoundland reports superintendent and staff quite well, and Bull’s Arm Station henceforth to be called "Cyrus Station.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Saward:—Two cable-splicers and gutta-percha jointer here waiting to make a splice in shore-end. All well.
DE SAUTY.”

Here are images of the paper tape (slip) and the received message form for the above transmission from Trinity Bay to Valentia.

The first nine characters on the tape are ··· ·- ·-- ·- ·-· /-·· - ·-- ---
In International Morse this is “Saward/Two”, which are the first words of the text on the message form.

Images courtesy of National Museums Scotland

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We will send coil currents. Say if you will receive.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Signals very good. Will you receive from Mayor Halifax to Lord Mayor of London?”
“Have you received my last service message?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We can’t take message.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“The two messages are from Mayors Halifax and Toronto.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We have asked London. Wait.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Well, have you asked those messages of De Sauty?”
“Have you message.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“No.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Was message about Europa made use of?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Yes:it was sent for publication.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“What weather have you?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Very fine. Yours?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Mosquitoes keep biting. This is a funny place to live in,—fearfully swampy.”
All messages cleared out again from both stations.

August 21.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We wish you to send coil currents. Are you ready?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Ready.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We send Vs.”
Good dots and V’s were received at Newfoundland.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes, we read well.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Can you read? Send fast.”
“I will send V’s by coil currents. Say if you get them. Are you ready?” ‘

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes, quite ready.” “Shall be glad to hear from you.”
(After an hour’s intermission,) “Your signals not readable.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“How now?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Better.”
“De Sauty to Bartholomew:—Ask Saward send 35 feet 3/8 gutta-percha tube, and two gutta-percha siphons with tops, and fifteen pounds gutta-percha, 3/8 sheet.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Bartholomew to De Sauty:—Understand. How signals now?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Not very good. Repeat my last.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Bartholemew to De Sauty:—Understand. Can you take message?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes, but repeat figures of my last.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Thirty-five, three eight, two fifteen, three eight.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. Send message.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Thomson to De Sauty:—Order McFarlane to arrange a mirror galvanometer for receiving. Use the innermost coil and power steel magnetic adjustment. Say when will be ready.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Now ready. Go on.”
“Land galvanometer in circuit. Signals beautiful.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Is this first time it is in circuit?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“No. Send thirty-five words as fast as you can.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Use hundred Daniell’s, with reversing key in your next. We are going to test the cable, and only wait for a specimen of your battery signals. After receiving which, we shall explain what we want.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. What reversing key do you mean? We are getting ready Daniell’s. If you send again, send faster.”
“Can’t read.” “Shall we send battery currents since everything ready?” “Please send something.”

August 22.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Can you receive message?” (After an hour’s intermission,)
“How do you receive?" (Seven hours’intermission,) “Do you receive this?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Can you read this?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes. Can you take message now?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Yes.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“August 21, New York. Right-Honorable Sir Walter Carden, Lord Mayor of London:—I congratulate your Lordship upon the successful laying of the Atlantic Cable, uniting continents Europe and America, cities London and New York, Great Britain and the United States. It is a triumph of science and energy over time and space, uniting more closely the bonds of peace and commercial prosperity,—introducing an era in the world’s history pregnant with results beyond the conception of a finite mind.
DANIEL F. TIEMANN, Mayor”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Mayor’s message received.”
“Insulate for two hours, and say when you commence. Repeat this.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. Cable insulated.”
“Have you finished testing?”
“Repeat. Send much slower.”
“Signals are good, but your sending comes very bad. Repeat all.”
“Please repeat service.”
“Repeat service message.”
“Repeat service now.” The above were all the signals read after the transmission of the Mayor’s message at 2.15 P.M., until 10.19 P.M.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Thomson to De Sauty:—Put delicate detector in circuit, and
note weak currents from us, thirty minutes each way. Say if ready.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Repeat word after ‘us.’”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Thirty.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. Ready now.”

August 23.

It rained very hard in Newfoundland from midnight until six A.M.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Your currents very irregular. Repeat.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Signals weak. Will you take message from Lord Mayor?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes; send little faster and better.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Give ‘understand ‘every twenty words.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“All right. Send much faster.”
“Understand, faster.” Testing nearly the whole of the day at Valentia.

August 24.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“The Lord-Mayor of London to the Hon. Daniel F. Tiemann, Mayor of New York:—The Lord Mayor of London most cordially reciprocates congratulations of Mayor New York upon the success of so important an undertaking as the completion of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable. It is indeed one of the most glorious triumphs of the age, and reflects the highest credit upon the energy, skill, and perseverance of all parties intrusted with so difficult a duty; and the Lord Mayor sincerely trusts, that, by the blessing of Almighty God, it may be the means of reuniting those kind feelings that now exist between the two countries. “
R. W. GARDEN, Lord Mayor.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Repeat between ’duty’and ’sincerely.’”
“Message all right,—understood.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Thomson to De Sauty:—On what instrument do you receive? How many divisions deflection do you get? What battery? How many cells? What key? Directors desire you send news, public interest, but none commercial. Have you any now?”
“Can you take a long message?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Go on.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Saward to De Sauty:—Answer by telegraph what length shore-end you require, and if any small cable as a reserve. How much surplus had Niagara, and where is it? Have you splices and jointers enough? We have chartered the Bilboa to lay the end. Telegraph full particulars, and if you require anything beside gutta-percha articles I will send them by the Bilboa.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Repeat from ‘shore-end’to ‘small.’”
“Acknowledged Saward to De Sauty.”

Valentia to Newfoundland. "C.W. Field:—We desire you to place in America about £ 15,000 unappropriated £20 shares, authorized February last- Reply by telegraph. Soonest.
C.M. SAMPSON.”

Newfoundland to Valentia
“Acknowledged message.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Answer each question about instruments.” (Refers to Thomson’s message.)
“Your currents vary much. Very weak to-day. How ours to-day?” (This is in answer to Newfoundland’s attempt to send message.)

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“To Thomson:—Receiving on your galvanometer, thirty divisions. Galvanometer seven degrees. Print local circuit by hand. The large Smee’s. Whitehouse’s reversing key. News Persia. DE SAUTY.”
“Have you received message right? Service for Saward. Will you take it?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Yes; and prepare after to receive Thomson’s compensated currents.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“De Sauty to Saward:—Two miles shore-end ample. Have half-mile small cable; plenty. It is stowed on beach. Two splicers and jointer here. Six gallons naphtha required. Please send authority to draw on Brooking. £100 required immediately for laborer’s house in a wilderness. Roads to make and woods to cut down and clear. Ought to have some more relays. Have only one great difficulty in sending letters from here. Have written fully.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Understand. Give news of Persia. Also public news for morning papers. Send much faster.”

August 25.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Persia takes Europa’s passengers and mail. Great rejoicing everywhere at success of cable. Bonfires, fireworks, feu de joies, speeches, balls, etc., etc. Mr. Eddy, the first and best telegrapher in the States, died to-day. Pray give some news for New York; they are mad for news.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Understand. Sent to London for news. Meantime take Thomson’s currents. Say when ready.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Splendid sending. We are quite ready.”
“Murray to Thomson:—Signals very weak. Send stronger acid.”
“Can you receive?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Thomson to McFarlane:—Where are keys of the glass cases and drawers in the apparatus-room?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“McFarlane to Thomson:—Don’t recollect.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Saward to De Sauty:—Are American wires broken, or working?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Working.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Field:—I send my warmest congratulations on the success of the Atlantic Telegraph. God be praised! GURNEY.”
(This was acknowledged by Newfoundland.)
“North American with Canadian, and the Asia with direct Boston mails, leave Liverpool, and Fulton Southampton, Saturday next. To-day’s morning papers have long, interesting reports by Bright. Indian news.—Virago arrived at Liverpool to-day; Bombay dates 19 July. Mutiny being rapidly quelled.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Sampson, London:—I will attend to your request. Have no doubt I can do what you require. CYRUS W. FIELD.”
This was acknowledged by Newfoundland.

August 26.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Why don’t you give ‘finis’(signal) when you have done?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“We have had storm, with thunder. Cable put to earth for one hour twenty-five minutes.”
(Professor Thomson was testing from 9 A.M. till 11.30 A.M. On the morning of Thursday, August 26, there was a storm of heavy rain, accompanied by thunder and lightning, in Newfoundland. It commenced at 2.30 A. M., and at 3.05 A.M. the lightning was so intense that the end of the cable was put to earth for protection. At 4.30 A.M. the storm ceased, and at 7.15 A. M. the weather is noted as having been since very fine.)
“Can’t read your signals. Send slower, and repeat all.”
“Your signals too weak to read.”
“Your signals very weak. Have twenty messages for you. Will you take them?”
“Your signals better. Repeat.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Try only one galvanometer in circuit. We must understand stoppage of Monday night and learn how to manage.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“What do you mean by stoppage of Monday night?”
“Understand. Go on.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Saward to De Sauty:—T. H. Brooking & Co. authorize an advance on your order by Hepburn to extent of one hundred pounds.”
“Thomson to De Sauty:—Your signals were very weak Monday night at 1.12 Greenwich time. None came from 2.44 to 4.06. Then very weak indeed. Improved later. At 8 good. We sent one message eight times, from 2.45 till 5.12. Had no reply. Stoppage again from 2 to 6 in the afternoon. Can you explain why? Tell us each time.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. New York, 25 August. Samuel Gurney, Esq., London:—Many thanks for message received. Americans wild with joy. Great celebration throughout the land, September 1 and 2.
C.W. FIELD.”

August 27.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Have you received message to Gurney?”
“Please take message, Thomson.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“No. Must send long press messages. Are you ready?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. Signals weak. Send ten words at a time.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“George Saward, Secretary Atlantic Telegraph Company, to Associated Press, 58 Beaver Street, New York:—News for America by Atlantic Cable. Emperor of France returned to Paris Saturday. King of Prussia too ill to visit Queen Victoria. Her Majesty returns to England 31st August.—St. Petersburg, 21st August. Settlement of Chinese question. Chinese Empire open to trade; Christian religion allowed; foreign diplomatic agents admitted; indemnity to England and France.—Alexandria, August 9. The Madras arrived at Suez 7th inst. Dates, Bombay 19th, Aden 31st. Gwalior insurgent army broken up. All India becoming tranquil" This message was commenced at 2.10 A.M. and finished at 11.10 A.M.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“De Sauty:—Till not troubled by stoppage, every day, shall send, and you receive, from 12 to 1, from 2 to 3, from 4 to 5, &c. You send from 1 to 2, from 3 to 4, &c. Never stop during hour. Give reversals when not speaking.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Is this Greenwich time? If so, give us 1 o’clock.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Yes; we begin now, and to 11, if you understand.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand.”

August 28.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“To the Directors:—Take news first, Saward. Sir William Williams, of Kars, arrived Halifax Tuesday. Enthusiastically received. Immense procession, welcome address, feeling reply. Held levee; large numbers presented. Niagara sailed for Liverpool at one this morning. The Gorgon arrived at Halifax last night. Yellow fever in New Orleans, sixty to seventy deaths per day. Also declared epidemic, Charleston. Great preparations in New York and other places for celebration to be held 1st and 2d Sept. New-Yorkers will make it the greatest gala day ever known in this country. Hermann sailed for Frazer’s River; six hundred passengers. Prince Albert sailed yesterday for Galway. Arabia and Ariel arrived New York; Anglo- Saxon, Quebec; Canada, Boston. Europa left St. John’s this evening. Splendid aurora Bay Bulls to-night, extending over eighty-five degrees of the horizon.
DE SAUTY.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Understand ‘per.’Send faster.”
“Repeat ‘Sept.’ to ‘day ever.’”
“Take one from Thomson. Can you read?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand, ‘yes’; understand.”
“After ‘fifty yards,’ repeat.”
“We received badly all day Monday; weak signals on after ‘fifty yards.’” [Messages referred to some parts of a message which they could not make out in Newfoundland, and which they did not succeed in obtaining.]
“Nothing received.”
“Say if you have received Thomson’s.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“No; send it.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Shall repeat message Thomson.”

August 29.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“How are my signals?”
(No communications from Newfoundland to-day.)

August 30.

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Can you read?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Yes, we can read you. Send news slowly. Saward asks where Kells is? How are my signals? Persia arrived Saturday. Receive on one galvanometer only, fault signals, produced currents from coil of your larger galvanometer.” (None of the words italicized were read in Newfoundland.)

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Can read some of your sending. Take this message:—New York. The Directors Atlantic Telegraph Company, London. Parties pressing upon us messages for Europe. When will line be open for business? Has Mr. Morgan sailed for New York? Early in the morning of September 1, please send me message that I can read at the celebration that day, and another on the 2d, I can read at dinner that evening.
C.W. FIELD.”

August 31.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Can you read? We have two government messages. Will you take? Reply direct.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Try, but send.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“The Military Secretary to Commander-in-Chief Horse Guards, London. To General Trollope, Halifax, Nova Scotia:—The sixty-second regiment is not to return to England.”
(This message, and that which will be found farther on in regard to the thirty-ninth regiment, saved to the British government the sum of fifty thousands pounds ($250,000), by avoiding the shipment and transportation of troops.)

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“This received:The Military Secretary to Commander-in- Chief Horse Guards, London.” “‘Trollope,’understand. Go on after ‘Scotia.’”
“Is it finished after ‘England?’”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Yes. Now take another. Are you ready?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes, send.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“The Military Secretary to Commander-in-Chief Horse Guards, to General Officer commanding, Montreal, Canada:—The thirty-ninth regiment is not to return to England.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“I want you to repeat ‘Canada.’”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Can’t read. Try ‘Daniels.’”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Repeat from ‘Canada’ to ‘return.’”

September 1.

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Canada. The thirty-ninth regiment is not to return.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Understand. Will you take a service?”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“I will try. Slow.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“We have received nothing since you repeated last.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Can you take message?”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Yes.”

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“ C.W. Field, New York:—The directors are on their way to Valentia to make arrangements for opening wire to public. They convey through cable to you and your fellow-citizens their hearty congratulations and good wishes, and cordially sympathize in your joyous celebration of the great international work.”

Newfoundland to Valentia.
“Forty-eight words. Right, right.”
(These were the last words received at Valentia.)

Valentia to Newfoundland.
“Right (signal understand).”

Some portions of the following message were received in Newfoundland:—
C.W. Field, New York, please inform American government we are now in position to do best to forward their government messages to England.
“SAWARD, London.”

The words italicized in the message were received in Newfoundland, and they were the last received from Valentia.


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